Chapter 13 Notes Research Methods
Chapter 13 Notes Research Methods 306
Minnesota State University, Mankato
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lili Notetaker on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 306 at Minnesota State University - Mankato taught by Deepa Oommen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in (CMST) Communication Studies at Minnesota State University - Mankato.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
CHAPTER 13: QUALITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS . GROUNDED THEORY : One of the most commonly used methods for analyzing qualitative data. Grounded Theory: A systematic process of theory generation that takes place through the analysis of qualitative data. Process includes both inductive and deductive logical reasoning. Made by Glaser and Strauss. Argued that only a theory developed from the data could adequately represent what was happening. Basis for grounded theory came out of symbolic interactionism= Communication is generated by interpreting various meanings and symbols in interaction. Shapes grounded theory as a method. “People sharing a common circumstance will also share some common meanings attached to that circumstance.” 2 Approaches to Grounded Theory: There are various approaches you can take. Each one shares four of the same elements: codes, concepts, categories, & themes. Codes= Identifying terms that permit key points in data to be gathered. Concepts= Conglomerations of codes around similar content. Categories= Broad groups of concepts used to create theory. Theory= A set of explanations about the social world. Often developed using the grounded-theory process. 1.) Glaserian Approach= -See grounded theory as a method of analysis that produces conceptual hypotheses. Hypotheses generate future research. -The general problem area, or focus of study, is identified before the study begins. - Also, this approach does not review the literature before the start of data collection. The literature is instead integrated into the data analysis. - Also, when it comes to sampling one of the goals of the sampling is to find comparative cases. The sampling is guided by concepts or themes discovered in the data. -Has twophases to conducting qualitative data. 1.) open/substantive coding= breaking data apart to delineate concepts or categories to represent chunks of data. Written data from field or transcripts are reviewed line by line. 2.) theoretical coding= Data are selectively coded or analyzed based on a theoretical lens. -Uses fit, work, relevance, & modifiability to evaluate a theory developed from analysis. 2.) Straussian Approach= -The final product is a verified theory that improves overall understanding of a phenomenon. Takes the concepts & hypotheses a step further into the development of a testable theory. - The general problem area, or focus of study is identified before the study begins through use of literature, personal experiences, & other means. -Also, the literature is reviewed before the study starts to aid in the creation of concepts or themes. -Also, the sampling in this approach is guided by theory, analytic questions or concerns, and research hypotheses or questions. -Employs axial coding= The inductive & deductive process of relating or linking codes to one another & creating concepts. This type of coding is optional. -Generalizability, reproducibility, & conceptual density of the categories are used to evaluate the developed theories. Constant comparison approach= When a researcher compares the codes that have already emerged to support identification of additional emergent codes. PROCESS OF GROUNDED THEORY : Focusing on Straussian approach: 7 steps. 1.) Review existing literature on a given theory or construct 2.) Collect qualitative data: interviews, ethnographic filed notes, focus group comments, etc. 3.) Qualitative data are easier to analyze if in some tangible form. (transcript) 4.) Open coding stage is next 5.) Memoing= Write-ups of ideas about theoretical relationships that emerge during coding. 6.) Sort the memos you have collected: Draw connections between the memos & broader discipline. 7.) Write-up: Clarify the theory you developed & describe how your data support arguments. STRENGTHS & WEAKNESSES OF GROUNDED THEORY : Weaknesses: 1.) Since method is subjective form of analysis, reliability & validity are difficult to establish. 2.) Detecting/preventing research bias is difficult. Advantages: 1.) Rigorous & systematic procedure for analyzing qualitative data. 2.) Offers a way to describe & explore individual experiences. Qualitative methods look for subjective & individual experiences. ALTERNATIVEMETHODSOF QUALITATIVEDATA ANALYSIS: Other approaches are available. Thematic Analysis: A straightforwardway to analyze qualitative data. 3 step process: -1.) Recurrence= When the same message(s) is implicitly repeated by a person or by multiple people in the transcripts. -2.) Repetition= When you look for explicit cases of key words, phrases, or key wording that are repeated in transcripts. -3.) Forcefulness (Intensity)= Includes vocal inflection, volume, or pausing used to stress or minimize some statements in speech.