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Week 8 Biology Notes

by: Kaeli

Week 8 Biology Notes BIOL 102 - E01


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About this Document

Notes go over fungi
Biological Principles II
Thomas J Reeves (P)
Class Notes
fungi, Biology
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaeli on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 102 - E01 at University of South Carolina taught by Thomas J Reeves (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Biological Principles II in Biological Sciences at University of South Carolina.

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Date Created: 10/11/16
Chapter 31 Notes Fungi  General things o Essential for the well­being of most animals o Estimated that there are 1.5 million species  Characteristics o Heterotrophic o Retain nutrients by absorption o Use enzymes o Molds and spores are incredibly resilient  Explains food mold  Structure o Multicellular filaments o Single cells  Yeasts o Mycelia  Networks of branched hyphae aid absorption  Septa divide cells   Pores allow cell to cell movement o Walls contain chitin  o Coenocytic fungi have no septa  Cytoplasmic mass with dispersed nuclei  Mycorrhizal Fungi o Specialized hyphae   Called haustoria   Allow them to contact the host o Ectomycorrhizal fungi   Form sheaths over a root  o Arbiscular mycorrhizal fungi  Extend through cell walls   Reproduction o Create spores   Sexual or asexual   Can form from more than one stage of reproduction o Different types of life cycles o Sexual reproduction steps:  Fuse mycelium   Fuse cytoplasm  Heterokaryotic stage   Fusion of nuclei  Karyogamy   Meiosis   Creates spores  Germination  Use pheromones to advertise mating type o Asexual reproduction  Yeasts  Bud cells from parent cells   Also have plasmids  Molds   Some can grow as yeasts and mycelia   Most have no known sexual stage   Deuteromycetes  Reclassified after sexual stage discovered  o Spend the majority of their life cycle as a haploid organism  Phylogeny o Related to animals more than plants o Multicellularity evolved analogously  o Fungi were earlier colonizers of land  Mutualistic relationship with plants  Basidomycetes  o Mushrooms, Puffballs, and shelf fungi  o Some form mycorrhizae, others are plant parasites  o Clublike structure called basidium  Diploid stage o Many decompose wood o Fruiting bodies called basidiocarps o Reproduction  No multicellular stage   Immediately produces meiospores after the formation of the diploid  Gills under the cap have spores   Produce mushrooms (fruiting bodies)  Some create fairy rings   Rings can grow huge and span miles  Importance o Interactions  Decomposers  Decompose cellulose and lignin  Mutualists  Mycorrhizal endophytes are essential o Produce toxins that deter herbivores  Cows  o Contain fungi for breaking down grasses  Ants o Raise fungi for digestive use in “farms”   Pathogens  About 30% of known species are plants o 10 to 50% of fruit harvests are lost every year to fungi   Some that attack crops are toxic to humans  Mycosis  o Human fungal infection  o Examples  Ringworm   Athlete’s foot   Yeast infection o Practical uses  Humans eat and use fungi to make cheeses, bread, etc.   Penicillium produces penicillin  


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