Week 8 Biology Notes
Week 8 Biology Notes BIOL 102 - E01
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaeli on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 102 - E01 at University of South Carolina taught by Thomas J Reeves (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Biological Principles II in Biological Sciences at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
Chapter 31 Notes Fungi General things o Essential for the wellbeing of most animals o Estimated that there are 1.5 million species Characteristics o Heterotrophic o Retain nutrients by absorption o Use enzymes o Molds and spores are incredibly resilient Explains food mold Structure o Multicellular filaments o Single cells Yeasts o Mycelia Networks of branched hyphae aid absorption Septa divide cells Pores allow cell to cell movement o Walls contain chitin o Coenocytic fungi have no septa Cytoplasmic mass with dispersed nuclei Mycorrhizal Fungi o Specialized hyphae Called haustoria Allow them to contact the host o Ectomycorrhizal fungi Form sheaths over a root o Arbiscular mycorrhizal fungi Extend through cell walls Reproduction o Create spores Sexual or asexual Can form from more than one stage of reproduction o Different types of life cycles o Sexual reproduction steps: Fuse mycelium Fuse cytoplasm Heterokaryotic stage Fusion of nuclei Karyogamy Meiosis Creates spores Germination Use pheromones to advertise mating type o Asexual reproduction Yeasts Bud cells from parent cells Also have plasmids Molds Some can grow as yeasts and mycelia Most have no known sexual stage Deuteromycetes Reclassified after sexual stage discovered o Spend the majority of their life cycle as a haploid organism Phylogeny o Related to animals more than plants o Multicellularity evolved analogously o Fungi were earlier colonizers of land Mutualistic relationship with plants Basidomycetes o Mushrooms, Puffballs, and shelf fungi o Some form mycorrhizae, others are plant parasites o Clublike structure called basidium Diploid stage o Many decompose wood o Fruiting bodies called basidiocarps o Reproduction No multicellular stage Immediately produces meiospores after the formation of the diploid Gills under the cap have spores Produce mushrooms (fruiting bodies) Some create fairy rings Rings can grow huge and span miles Importance o Interactions Decomposers Decompose cellulose and lignin Mutualists Mycorrhizal endophytes are essential o Produce toxins that deter herbivores Cows o Contain fungi for breaking down grasses Ants o Raise fungi for digestive use in “farms” Pathogens About 30% of known species are plants o 10 to 50% of fruit harvests are lost every year to fungi Some that attack crops are toxic to humans Mycosis o Human fungal infection o Examples Ringworm Athlete’s foot Yeast infection o Practical uses Humans eat and use fungi to make cheeses, bread, etc. Penicillium produces penicillin
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