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Date Created: 04/02/15
Lecture 21 Introduction to Ecology amp Behavioral Ecology I What is ecology What is a behavior and why how does it occur I Under what conditions are different types of behaviors advantageous IV Why behave altruistically V When how to communicate An example Clicker Q1 Which of the following statements best distinguishes land plants from animals 1 Land plants colonized land once animals colonized land multiple times 2 Land plants build carbon based compounds from light animals gain carbon from C02 3 All animals move throughout their lives land plants never move 4 1 2 and 3 I What is Ecology Ecology is the study of how organisms interact with their environment biotic abiotic What kinds of ecological questions could you ask about this dung beetle Individual behavior physiology Populations Communities Ecosystems Conservation ll What is a Behavior A Behavioral ecology the study of how organisms make decisions respond when they interact with aspects of their environment sense a stimulus What should I eat Where should I live How should I communicate Who should I mate with When should I cooperate ll What is a Behavior A Behavioral ecology the study of how and why organisms make decisions respond when they interact with aspects of their environment sense a stimulus Behavior Stimulus Response Venus flytrap closing Tool use in crows ll What is a Behavior B Causes of behavior the how proximate and the why ultimate Venus Fly Trap Crow tool use Proximate Ultimate Clicker 02 When a dog senses the approach of their companion dog or owner it stands still raises its tail and wags the tail back and forth Which are the proximate ultimate causes of tail wagging Ans Proximate how Ultimate why Dogs learn to wag their tails The earliest dogs domesticated 1 from their mothers wolves likely wagged their tails Companion sensed with Tail wagging signals friendly 2 sensory organs amp skeleto intentions increasing group muscular system dog wags tail bonding and thus survival amp reproduction Tail wagging signals friendly Companion sensed with sensory 3 intentions increasing group organs amp skeletomuscular bonding and thus survival amp system dog wags tail reproduction ll What is a Behavior C Ecological implications of a behavior how does it influence the interaction of the organism with its environment Venus fly trap Ill When are different behaviors advantageous A Fixed stereotyped highly inflexible stereotyped greylag goose r E u 1 u A m WE39VE Jami I I O 1 J V l I i i I i ma r UJ l l i l L 7 i m A a a H v we 5 a 3 J j l I Hi A i 7 L1 a u 1 n L ni ll u a herring gulls releaser Under what conditions might fixed behaviors be advantageous nota releaser releasers Ill When are different behaviors advantageous A Fixed stereotyped higth inflexible stereotyped behaviors What are some disadvantages to very fixed behaviors L y Are 1 you my mother Ill When are different behaviors advantageous B Conditional behavior flexible behavior response is conditional to stimulus several or environmental context Under what conditions might flexible behaviors be advantageous over fixed behaviors Thaumoctopus mimicus Mimic octopus Thalassoma bifascicatum 39 39 Bluehead wrasse Clicker Question 3 Each year an individual striped maple tree is either male producing pollen or female producing seed The sex of a tree in any given year depends both on its size and how many resources it acquired the previous year Thus sex switching in striped maples is an example of 1 A fixed stereotyped behavior because trees always reproduce 2 A proximate explanation for differential allocation to reproduction 3 An ultimate explanation for maximizing fitness 4 A conditional behavior because it depends on the environment the tree experiences Ill When are different behaviors advantageous C Learned behavior enduring change in behavior due to a specific experience in an individuals life Simple Iearning iriing Ill When are different behaviors advantageous C Learned behavior enduring change in behavior due to a specific experience in an individuals life Under what conditions might learned behavior be advantageous Bewick s wren More complex learning spatial memory song juven e babeng Frequency adult song gq Ill When are different behaviors advantageous C Learned behavior enduring change in behavior due to a specific experience in an individuals life John IVIarzluff check UW avian conservation lab Do crows recognize faces Why do crows hold funerals I n H g c 7 E fquot L5llu39 I L r I i 39i I TJquot 3 httpsefswashingtoneduresearchac httpwwwnytimescom20080826science26crowhtml Ill When are different behaviors advantageous Behaviors fall onto a continuum of flexibility and learning Learned Innate Fixed Flexible Stereotyped Conditional IV Why behave altruistically Altruism fitness cost to individual recipient recieves a benefit Slime molds Sentinel meerkat V waif Why does altruistic behavior occur IV Why behave altruistically Altruistic communication alarm calling What is communication and how does it relate to behavior a We 5 av ogs I WH my 6W6 it ME A agrar r A i Clicker Q4 When ground squirrels see rattle snakes they wag their tails Which of the following makes this tailwagging behavior an example of communication by the ground squirrel 1 2 U The rattlesnake eats ground squirrel pups Tail wagging modifies the behavior of the rattlesnake from predatory to defensive Adult ground squirrels attack and bite rattlesnakes Tail wagging may be costly to the ground squirrel but not as costly as getting eaten by a rattlesnake V When and how to communicate Behavior Ground squirrels can add an infrared component to their snake directed tail flagging Snakes are a major predator of ground squirrels pups adults are immune to venom and attack snakes Ground squirrels are confronted by snakes that both can and can t detect infrared rattlesnakes with infrared sensitive pit organs gopher snakes that do not have this organ Hypotheses tested Ground squirrels only include an infrared component to their tail wagging when confronting a rattlesnake Rattlesnakes are more likely to shift from predatory to defensive behavior when confronted with infrared tail wagging What kind of experiment could you design to test each hypothesis Rundusetal2007