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US History Chapter 23

by: Susan Miller

US History Chapter 23 HIST2112

Marketplace > Kennesaw State University > History > HIST2112 > US History Chapter 23
Susan Miller
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A Clash of Cultures (1920-1929): a "New Era" of Consumption, the Rise of Mass Culture, the "Jazz Age," African American Life, the Modernist Revolt
American History to 1877
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Susan Miller on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST2112 at Kennesaw State University taught by Price in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see American History to 1877 in History at Kennesaw State University.


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Date Created: 10/11/16
USHistory Since 1877 Chapter 23 A Clash of Cultures I.A “New Era” of Consumption A. The Nation in 1920 1. Population a) 106 million, 1/3 today’s population b) Half under age 25 c) Life expectancy:56 for men, 58 for women 2. South a) Remained the most ruraland poorest area of the nation b) Only 1/2 owned their land B. A Growing Consumer Culture 1. Mass production led to mass consumption a) Late 1800s, commercial agriculture, large scale industrial production, rail roads, steelmanufacturing, new business b) Production no longer could make money from WWI (1) Hadto make its money from the consumers (2) Encouraged carefree spending c) “Layaway” (1) Finance purchases over time (2) Consumer debt tripled during the 20s (3) By 1929, almost 60% of purchases made on an installment 2. Advertising a) First developed in late 1800s, grew tremendously in 1920s b) Visibility of ads shaped “how people defined the pursuit of happiness” c) Weekdayradio programs (1) Oftensponsored by national companies advertising household goods (2) Appealed to the housewife 3. Creature comforts a) Higher standard of living among the middle class b) 68% hadelectricity by 1930 c) Ceiling fans, flush toilets, electric irons, vacuum cleaners,linoleum floors II. The Rise of Mass Culture A. Movie-Made America 1. First show in NYC in 1896 2. By 1924: a) 20,000 theatres showing 700 new silent films a year b) Hollywood became the center of movie production c) Charlie Chaplin (1) English-born actor and comedian 3. Attendance a) Averaged80 million per week(over half the national population) b) Surged with the invention of “talkies” (movies with sound) c) Americans spent “ten times as much on movies as they did on tickets to baseball and football games” 4. Expanded Consumer Culture a) Setstandards for fashion, dancing, music, hairstyles B. Radio 1. 1926: National Broadcasting Company (NBC),Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) 2. Widespread ownership of radios a) Families gatheredaround to listen to live music, news, sports, weather,worship services, andcomedy shows b) Calvin Coolidge was the first president to address the nation by radio (1) Pavedthe wayfor FDR’s fireside chats c) Transformedjazz music into a “national craze” C. Flying Machines 1. 1903: Wilbur and Orville Wright a) Built and flew the first “flying machine” over the Kitty Hawk,NC beach 2. Europeans usedairplanes during WWI a) The US usedBritish or Frenchplanes 3. Kelly Act (1925) a) Federalgovernment began to subsidize the industry through airmail contracts 4. Air Commerce Act(1926) a) Provided federalfunds for the advancementof air transportation and navigation, including the construction of airports 5. Big Names a) Charles A. Lindbergh (1) Made the first solo trans-Atlantic flight (2) NYC to Paris,33 ½hours b) Amelia Earhart (1) First womanto fly solo across the Atlantic D. The Car Culture 1. HenryFord a) Model T: sold for $290 (less than $4000 today) b) Pioneer in assembly line production (1) Could piece together a car in 93 minutes (2) Enabled lower prices andhigher worker wages 2. During the 1920s, the USbuilt 10 times more cars than all of Europe combined 3. Benefits a) Encouraged suburban living b) Createdjobs c) Stimulated road construction d) Sparked realestate boom E. Spectator Sports 1. Baseball a) Createdin the 1870s, became the “national pastime” b) Babe Ruth and Lou Gehrig of the New YorkYankees 2. College Football 3. Boxing III. The “Jazz Age” A. The Birth of Jazz 1. Louis Armstrong a) Singer and trumpeter b) Grew up verypoor in New Orleans,snuck into music halls to watchearly jazz c) Startedtraveling across the USin his 20s with his jazz band 2. Dance Halls a) Accommodated jazz music andpopular dances suchas the Charleston 3. Big names: a) Duke Ellington, Bessie Smith, Joe “King” Oliver B. A Sexual Revolution? 1. Sigmund Freud a) Austrian founder of psychoanalysis b) Insisted that the human mind was mysteriously “conflicted by unconscious efforts to suppress irrational impulses andsexual desires c) Ideas soon made their wayinto society (1) Female movie stars projected images of freedom, energy, and independence (2) Magazines focused on sexand romance C. MargaretSanger and Birth Control 1. American Birth Control League (1921) a) Changed to Planned Parenthood(1942) b) Distributed info to doctors, social workers,the scientific community, and thousands of women c) Alienated some supporters with talk of sterilization of mentally incompetent 2. Did not succeedin legalizing the distribution of contraceptives, but did lay the foundation for suchefforts D. The “New Women” 1. Flappers a) Knee-length skirts and dresses withsheer tights b) Drove cars c) “Bobbed” their hair and wore makeup d) Joined men in smoking, drinking, gambling, and dancing to jazz e) Defiantly independent and seductive E. Not-so-new Women 1. Majority of women were full-time wives, mothers, or household servants a) Growing availability of electrical appliances made these jobs easier b) Supermarkets cut down on food prep costs (1) Women of color usually had to pick up the slack andwork as seamstresses,maids, or laundresses F. The Color Line 1. Racism limited women’s freedom a) Specifically, towns would do all that they could to prevent interracial marriages IV. AfricanAmerican Life A. The Great Migration 1. To the North a) War industries neededlabor b) Better living conditions and better paying jobs c) Could speakmore freely and were generally treatedmore equally 2. 1928: Oscar De Priestbecame the firstblack electedto Congress from a northern district 3. Challenges a) Sometimes clashed with local ethnic groups who fearedthatthe blacks would take their jobs b) Takenadvantage of by bankers, landlords, realtors c) Paid lower wages thanwhites d) Forcedinto substandard and segregatedhousing B. The NAACP 1. The National Association for the Advancementof Colored People a) Founded in 1910 by black activists and white progressives b) WEB Du Bois became the director of publicity andjournal editor 2. Focused on legal action a) Wantedto enforce the 14 and 15 Amendments b) Guinn v. UnitedStates (1915) (1) OK tried to deprive blacks’ right to vote (2) Supreme Court said nope c) Buchananv. Worley(1917) (1) Invalidated a residential segregation ordinance in Louisville, Kentucky 3. Pushedfor anti-lynching laws a) Passedin House, defeatedin Senate by southerners C. The Harlem Renaissance 1. The nation’s first black artistic and literary movement a) Startedin the growing African Americancommunity of Harlem in northern Manhattan b) Generateda sense of identity, growing power, and self-expression c) Called the “Nightclub Capital of the World” by journalists 2. Women in the Movement a) Zora Neale Hurston (1) First AfricanAmerican to enroll atBarnardCollege (the women’s college of Columbia University) (2) Wrote short stories and plays about the “Negro furthestdown” on the social scale (3) Veryoutspoken D. Garveyism 1. “Negro Nationalism” a) Promoted black separatism from mainstream Americanlife b) Leader Marcus Garvey (1) Founded Universal NegroImprovement Association (UNIA) (2) Wantedan all-black empire in Africa (3) Appealed to poor blacks in northern cities and some in the south (4) Shocked NAACP members andleaders (ex. WEB Du Bois) 2. Outcome a) Garvey convicted of fraud, sentencedto5 years b) Pardonedby Coolidge, who only got him out sohe would go backto his home country of Jamaica c) Died in 1940, ideas reemergedin 1960s under the slogan “black power” V. The Modernist Revolt A. Albert Einstein 1. 26-year-old German physicist a) Published a series of researchpapers (1) 1: light is not a wave,but actually a series of particles (a) Basis for quantum physics (b) Ledto technologies like the TV, laser beams, and semiconductors (c) Earnedhim the 1921 Nobel Prize (2) 2: confirmed existence of atoms and molecules (3) 3: theory of relativity 2. Ideas influenced society a) Less faith in absolutes B. Modernist Artand Literature 1. Modernism a) First appearedin European capitals b) The widespread awareness thatnew ideas andways of doing things were making a sharp breakwith tradition c) Took chances,violated artistic rules and moral restrictions, behaved in deliberately shocking ways 2. Basedon three loose assumptions a) God did not exist b) “reality” was not rational, orderly, or obvious c) Social progress could no longer be takenfor granted 3. The Armory Show a) “Most scandalous event in the history of AmericanArt” (1) 1913 (2) Officially known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art (3) Included works from Matisse, VanGogh, Picasso b) Helped modern artbecome a popular topic of debate in America 4. Pound, Eliot, and Stein a) Ezra Pound (1) Poet (2) T.S. Eliot, his protégée, claimed thatPound was “single-handedly responsible for the modernist movement in poetry” b) T. S. Eliot (1) Harvardgrad (2) SurpassedPound as leading American modernist (3) The Waste Land (1922) became a monument of modernism c) Gertrude Stein (1) Champion of Americanmodernists living in Paris (2) Famous for hosting a “cultural salon” in Paris (a) Gathering place for Americanand European modernists C. The “Lost Generation” 1. Young modernists like Fitzgerald andHemingway a) Lost their faith in the values and institutions of Westerncivilization b) Cynicism after the war had replacedidealism c) Gertrude Stein coined the term (1) Told Hemingway and those who had servedthat they were a “lost generation” and “you are [lost]. You have no respectfor anything. You drink yourselves to death.” 2. Hemingway a) The Sun Also Rises (1916) (1) Uses the phrase in the opening line of the novel (2) About loss of innocence, illusions, andmotivation of war survivors 3. Fitzgerald a) Works centeredonself-indulgent and self-destructive people who party and drink too much b) The GreatGatsby(1925) c) Books focusedon a “sense of impending doom in a world thathad lost its meaning through the disorienting discoveries of modern science and the horrors of the world”


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