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Intro to Human Communication Chapter 6: Listening in Interpersonal Communication

by: Ashley Trecartin

Intro to Human Communication Chapter 6: Listening in Interpersonal Communication SPEE 104

Marketplace > Southwestern Michigan College > Speech > SPEE 104 > Intro to Human Communication Chapter 6 Listening in Interpersonal Communication
Ashley Trecartin

GPA 3.43

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About this Document

These are the book notes for chapter six.
Intro to Human Communication
Joel Thompson Jr.
Class Notes
intro, to, Human, communication, Chapter, 6, Listening, In, Interpersonal
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Trecartin on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPEE 104 at Southwestern Michigan College taught by Joel Thompson Jr. in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Communication in Speech at Southwestern Michigan College.

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Date Created: 10/11/16
Chapter 6: Listening in Interpersonal Communication I. The Process of Listening A. Listening is the process of receiving, understanding, remembering, evaluating, and  responding to verbal and/or nonverbal messages.  B. Stage One: Remembering 1. Remembering is a stage in listening referring to the retention of what you hear.  a. Focus your attention b. Avoid distractions c. Maintain role as listener 2. Disclaimers are statements that aim to ensure your message will be understood  and will not reflect negatively on you.  a. Hedging separates the message from you b. Credentialing gives you qualifications c. Sin licenses ask permission d. Cognitive disclaimers show possession of faculties e. Appeals for the suspension of judgement ask to be heard out before a  judgement is made.  C. Stage Two: Understanding 1. Understanding is the stage at which you learn what the speaker means, you  grasp both the thoughts and emotions expressed.  a. Avoid assumptions b. See message from speaker’s point of view c. Ask questions d. Rephrase D. Stage Three: Remembering 1. Remembering is a stage of listening referring to the retention of what you hear.  2. Short­term memory is the memory you use to remember a phone number long  enough to write it down.  3. Long­term memory is unlimited in storage capacity and that holds information  for long periods of time.  a. Focus on central ideas b. Organize message c. Untie new and old information d. Repeat concepts E. Stage Four: Evaluating 1. Evaluating consists of judging the message in some way.  a. Resist evaluating until understanding b. Distinguish facts from opinions c. Identify bias d. Recognize fallacious forms of reasoning  i. Name­calling ii. Testimonials iii. Bandwagon F. Stage Five: Responding 1. Responding happens in two phases: responses you make while the speaker is  talking and responses you make after the speaker has stopped talking.  2. Back­channeling cues are supportive responses made while the speaker is  talking.  a. Support the speaker b. Own your responses c. Resist responding to another’s feelings with solving the person’s  problems.  d. Focus on the other person e. Avoid being a thought­completing listening II. Listening Barriers A. Distractions: Physical and Mental 1. Physical barriers could be a hearing impairment, noise in the surrounding area,  or loud music and/or television.  2. Mental distractions could be thinking about an upcoming appointment, a date,  or worrying about a grade on a test.  B. Biases and Prejudices 1. A biases or a prejudice against someone will distort your message to them.  2. Closed­mindedness is an unwillingness to receive certain communication  messages. C. Racist, Heterosexist, Ageist, and Sexist Listening 1. Your ability to hear a message could be distorted because of preconceived  stereotypes you hold against a race, an age, or a sexual preference.  D. Lack of Appropriate Focus 1. You need to be able to focus on what someone is saying to listen effectively.  2. Some people only listen if the message pertains to them.  E. Premature Judgement 1. Assuming you know what the speaker is going to say before they say it may  cause you to not listen.  III. Styles of Effective Listening A. Empathetic and Objective Listening 1. Empathy is a quality of interpersonal effectiveness that involves sharing others’  feelings; an ability to feel or perceive thins from others’ points of view.  2. Empathetic listening is listening to understand what a person means and what a  person is feeling.  3. Objective listening is listening with detachment to measure meaning and  feelings against some objective reality.  a. Punctuate the message from the speaker’s point of view b. Engage in equal, two­way conversation c. Seek to understand both thoughts and feelings d. Avoid offensive listening e. Strive to be objective B. Nonjudgmental and Critical Listening 1. Nonjudgmental listening is listening with an open mind and a view toward  understanding.  2. Critical listening is listening with an open mind a. Keep an open mind and avoid prejudice  b. Avoid filtering our complex messages c. Recognize own biases d. Avoid sharpening, which is a process in which one or two aspects of the  message become highlights, emphasized, and perhaps embellished.  e. Recognize the fallacies of language C. Surface and Depth Listening 1. Surface listening is an obvious meaning. 2. Depth listening is recognizing the underlying messages a. Focus on verbal and nonverbal messages b. Listen for content and relational messages c. Make not of self­reflexive statements d. Don’t disregard the literal meaning. D. Polite and Impolite Listening 1. Avoid interruptions 2. Give support 3. Show empathy 4. Maintain eye contact 5. Give positive feedback E. Active and Inactive Listening 1. Active listening is the process by which a listener expresses their understanding  of the speaker’s total message, including the verbal and nonverbal, the thoughts  and feelings.  2. Functions of Active Listening a. Helps check understating of what was said and meant b. Allows speaker to see acceptance of thoughts and feelings c. Stimulates speaker to explore said thoughts and feelings d. Avoid solution messages which tell the person who they should feel or  what they should do.  i. Ordering messages ii. Warning and threatening messages iii. Preaching and moralizing messages iv. Advising messages 3. The Techniques of Active Listening a. Paraphrase the meaning b. Show understanding of feelings c. Question IV. Culture, Gender, and Listening A. Culture and Listening 1. Language and Speech a. Different dialects and cultures have different meanings for words.  b. If English is a second language the differences may be greater.  2. Nonverbal Behaviors a. Display rules are cultural rules that govern what nonverbal behaviors are  appropriate or inappropriate in a public setting.  3. Feedback a. Direct feedback comes from members of some cultures such as the  United States.  b. In some Asian cultures they would rather be positive than truthful.  B. Gender and Listening 1. Rapport and Report Talk a. Women will build rapport and relationships b. Men emphasize dominance 2. Listening cues a. Both genders have different cutes for listening.  b. Women will give a lot of cues.  c. Men will listen without giving many.  3. Amount and Purposes of Listening a. Women listen more than men b. Men will have an argumentative posture c. Women will have supportive questions


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