New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

General Biology

by: Megan Wiggs

General Biology BIOL 1005

Megan Wiggs
Virginia Tech

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover what was covered in class
General Biology
MV lipscomb
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in General Biology

Popular in Science

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Wiggs on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1005 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by MV lipscomb in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see General Biology in Science at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Similar to BIOL 1005 at Virginia Tech


Reviews for General Biology


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/11/16
Control of Gene Expression Lesson 13 All body cells have the same genes - Different body cells use different genes Gene Expression Changes Over Time Prokaryotes regulate gene expression in response to environmental changes Eukaryotes regulate gene expression for development and to maintain homeostasis Transcriptional Regulation is the Most Common Type Transcriptional regulation is particularly common in prokaryotes A promoter region is where the RNA polymerase attaches - Regulatory proteins may affect the ability for RNA polymerase to attach - True to both Eukaryotes and prokaryotes A promoter region consists of regulatory DNA sequence upstream from transcription start site RNA polymerase binds to the core promoter to initiate transcription. Regulatory proteins may affect the ability of RNA polymerase to bind to the promoter Many Prokaryotic Genes are Organized into Operons Genes in operon have related functions DNA components of Operon Regulation: Core Promoter Region Operator- only associated with repressor proteins Activator Binding Sit- May be close to the core promoter or further away Operons always have a promoter, but may have any number/combination of activator binding sites and operators The lac operon produces the proteins required for lactose metabolism - Both positively and negatively controlled - Inhibits transcription when lactose is absent - CAP activator protein promotes transcription when glucose is absent Presence of glucose= activator Presence of lactose= repressor Regulation occurs at all stages in eukaryotes Transcriptional regulation: - Transcription factors (regulatory proteins) - Chromatin Structure-Epigenetic regulation Post Transcriptional Regulation: - mRNA alternative splicing - mRNA transport - Inhibition of translation Post translational regulation - Protein activity - Protein stability Transcriptional regulation in Eukaryotes Regulatory proteins/transcription factors - Some require activation Epigenetic - Changes in chromosome without change DNA sequence o Chromatin structure- packaging level or chemical modifications o Chromosome inactivation  Barr body-inactive X chromosome Post-transcriptional regulation in Eukaryotes Alternative splicing - 2 or more genes from the same primary mRNA transcript - takes place in the cytoplasm Inhibition of transport inhibition of translation - Reduced availability of molecules needed for translation - Molecules block translation of mRNA Post translational regulation in Eukaryotes Protein Activity - Addition or removal of phosphate groups Protein stability - Proteins are degraded (regulated gene expression in the cell) Human gene expression: Summary slide • 1. Each human cell contains the same set of genes ( approx. 21,000.) • 2. Human body à about 200 different cell types • 3. A fraction of the genes are expressed in each cell. • 4. Differential gene expression results in specialized cells. • 5. Differential gene expression occurs over time during development. • 6. Differential gene expression occurs to maintain homeostasis.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.