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Developmental Psyc Chapter 8 Notes

by: Kaija Perkins

Developmental Psyc Chapter 8 Notes psyc2040

Marketplace > The University of Cincinnati > Psychology > psyc2040 > Developmental Psyc Chapter 8 Notes
Kaija Perkins

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These notes cover Chapter 8 lecture notes for developmental psyc.
Developmental Psychology
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaija Perkins on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psyc2040 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Wissman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychology at The University of Cincinnati.

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Date Created: 10/11/16
Chapter 8 – Emotional and Social Development Erikson’s Theory  Initiative vs. Guilt Initiative = new sense of purposefulness, eagerness to explore Guilt = overly strict superego, related to parental styles Self-Understanding = emerging language (discussion), supports development of self-concept Self-concept = observable characteristics, typical emotions, does not reference personality traits Self-esteem = self judgement and associated feelings  Emotional behavior, future behavior, etc. Gains in emotional competency = improvements in emotional understanding and emotional self-regulation *preschoolers can correctly judge emotions Emotional self-regulation = age 3-4 are aware of strategies to adjust emotions Self-conscious emotions depend on adult feedback Empathy vs. Sympathy Peer sociability in Play Early Childhood Friendships = Someone who “likes you”, friendships change frequently, provide social support and favorable school adjustment Collectivist cultures = stress group harmony, group cooperation  Cultures vary in beliefs about the importance of play Parental Influence:  Direct = arranging peer activities, guidance on how to act  Indirect = attachment Punishment (frequent harsh punishment can have negative effects) Alternatives to harsh punishments = time-out, withdraw privileges, and positive discipline Ways to increase effectiveness = consistency, warm relationship, explanations Proactive (instrumental) = help child get something, self-initiated Reactive (hostile) = hurt someone, defensive response (ex. Physical, verbal, relational) Media violence can increase hostile thoughts, emotions, and behavior *Gender Stereotypes* by age 3-4 they know for sure  Associations with roles, toys, clothing, behavior, etc. Genetics: (evolutionary perspective)  Males were largely oriented toward competing for mates (dominance)  Females were largely oriented toward rearing children (intimacy)  Environmental- family, teachers, peers and how they interact differently with boys/girls based on gender Social Learning theory  preschoolers acquire gender-typed responses through modeling and reinforcement Cognitive-Development theory  self-perceptions come from behavior, permanence of sex helps to shape gender-role development Parents have the ability to limit Gender stereotyping (limiting traditional roles with non-traditional alternatives) Child Rearing Styles:  Authoritative = the most successful approach, high acceptance and involvement, self-control techniques and high self-esteem  Authoritarian = low acceptance and involvement with high parental control. Parents are cold and rejecting  Permissive = Warm/accepting but uninvolved. Children are independent  Uninvolved = low acceptance and low involvement with low control and general indifference Parenting styles vary based on culture Origins of Maltreatment:  Parents = psychological disturbance, alcohol and drug abuse, history of abuse  Child = premature or very sickly baby or is overly active  Family = low income, homelessness, marital instability  Community = social isolation few child care centers, preschool programs or recreation facilities  Culture = approval of physical force Consequences of Child Maltreatment:  Emotional = poor emotional self-regulation, impaired empathy/sympathy and can lead depression  Adjustment = Over time these individuals show serious adjustment problems that lead to substance abuse and violent crime  Learning = impaired working memory and executive functions


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