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Sociology 110- Exam 2 Notes

by: Elizabeth Ratchenski

Sociology 110- Exam 2 Notes 110

Marketplace > North Dakota State University > Sociology > 110 > Sociology 110 Exam 2 Notes
Elizabeth Ratchenski
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Notes from 10.05.16 to 10.10.16
Introduction to Sociology
Leretta Smith
Class Notes
Introduction to Sociology




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Ratchenski on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 110 at North Dakota State University taught by Leretta Smith in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 164 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Sociology in Sociology at North Dakota State University.


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Date Created: 10/11/16
10.05.16 Wednesday, October 5, 2016 12:37 PM Social Groups: • Social Groups: Group consists of two or more people who have the same norms, values, expectations, and interact with one another on a regular basis ○ Example: Family, Friends, Athletic Team • Group Size: ○ Simmel (1950) focused on group size Dyads: Group of two ○ ○ Triads: Group of 3 § As the size increases, stability increases § As the size increases, intensity of the relationships decreases • Primary Groups: Relatively small group of people who engage in intimete fac- to-face interaction over an extended period of time ○ Example: Family and close friends • Secondary Groups: Large, formal, impersonal, temporary collection of people that pursues a specific goal/activity ○ Examples: Classes, Work, Volunteer Organization • In-Groups And Ou- tGroups ○ Members on and in-groupshare sense of identity that excludes outsiders ○ Out-groupsare people who are viewed and treated negatively because they are seen as having values, beliefs, or other characteristics different from one's own • Reference group:Large group of people that shape our behaviors, values, and attitudes ○ Example: Nursing students and the other nursing resources that they use Social Networks: • Social Networks: Web of social ties that links an individual to others ○ A series of social relationships that link a person directly to others, and through them, indirectly to still more ○ Friend of a friend of a friend - type of situation ○ Men and women more successful at different type § Men-business networks § Women-Friendship networks ○ Parents helping their children find a job • Formal Organizations: Complex and structured secondary groups deliberately ○ Men and women more successful at different type § Men-business networks § Women-Friendship networks ○ Parents helping their children find a job • Formal Organizations: Complex and structured secondary groups deliberately created to achieve specific goals ○ Coercive organizations § Use force → The military, Prison, etc. ○ Utilitarian organizations § Money talks → Banks ○ Voluntary organizations § Morals → Charities • Most successful organizations include all three of these Sociologist Perspectives on Groups and Organizations: • Functionalists ○ Groups/formal organizations are composed of interrelated, mutually dependent parts ○ Bureaucratic regulations allow goal achievement, to benefit ALL employees ○ Can be dysfunctional, but they would rather focus on order and balance • Conflict Theorists: ○ Based on power and control differences ○ Place in organization is based on race, gender, and social class ○ Owners and managers exploit workers • Feminist Theorists: ○ Emphasize different positions of men and women in organization ○ Woman hit glass ceiling (Invisible Barrier) Symbolic Interactionists • ○ Emphasize that how people define a situation shapes group dynamics/organizations ○ W.I. Thomas: "If we define situations as real, they are real in consequences" 10.07.16 Friday, October 7, 20111:22 AM Bureaucracy: • Bureaucracy:Formal organization that is designed to accomplish goals and tasks by large numbers of people in the most efficient and rational ways possible ○ Characteristics of Bureaucracy 1. High degree of division of labor and specialization → Trained incapacity 2. Hierarchy of authority → Top-down administration 3. Explicit rules and regulations 4. Impersonality 5. Qualification-based employment → Peter Principle: Person rises to his/her level of incompetence • Bureaucratization:Process by which a group, organization, or social movement becomes increasingly bureaucratic ○ Even small organizations undergo bureaucratization • Conflict Perspective ○ Iron law of oligarchy § Few rule the many ○ Those who have power and rise to leadership positions do everything they can to maintain their power • Functionalist Perspective ○ Classical theory of organizations § Basic scientific management → Workers could be treated like mach nly constraint was physical limits → Supervision gets maximum performance out of workers § Human relations approach → Emphasizes people, communication, and participation in the process ○ Most successful organizations have both • Interactionist perspective ○ Focus on interactions, individuals, and small groups ○ Hawthorne effe- switch workers ▪ Tendency to perform or perceive differently when one knows they Most successful organizations have both ○ • Interactionist perspective ○ Focus on interactions, individuals, and small groups ○ Hawthorne effe- switch workers ▪ Tendency to perform or perceive differently when one knows they are being observed 10.10.16 Monday, October 10, 2016 7:03 PM Deviance: • Deviance:behavior that violates expected rules/norms ○ Positive deviance: over conforms ○ Negative deviance: Falls below social expectations ○ Can be a condition, belief, or behavior ○ It is accompanied by social stigmas ○ It varies across and within societies ○ It can be formal or informal ▪ Example: Formal would be crime; Informal would not be a crime ○ Perceptions od deviance change over time • Crime: a violation of societal norms and rules written into public laws that is subject to punishment ○ All crime is deviant BUT not all deviance is crime ▪ Victimless Crime Occupational (Professional) ▪ ▪ Organized Crime ▪ White Collar:committed by ONE person ▪ Corporate Crimes: illegal acts committed by executives to benefit themselves and their companies → Committed by TWO or MORE ▪ Transitional Crime: Across state borders • Functions and Dysfunctions ○ Functions of crime and deviance: ▪ Affirm cultural norms and values ▪ Provide temporary safety values ▪ Create social unity ▪ Improve the economy ▪ Trigger social change ○ Dysfunctions of crime and deviance ▪ Tensions ▪ Insecurity ▪ Erodes ▪ Loss of Trust ▪ Damage ▪ Confidence ▪ Can be costly ▪ Insecurity ▪ Erodes ▪ Loss of Trust ▪ Damage ▪ Confidence ▪ Can be costly • 5 modes of Adaption to Strain: Conformists: accept goals and means (+/+) ○ ○ Innovationists: accept goals but reject means (+/ -) ○ Ritualism: Reject goals but accept means(/+) ○ Retreatism: reject goals and means-/-) ○ Rebellion: Replace goals and means -/-) then (+/+) • Means: Hard work • Goals:Successes/Wealth


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