Biodiversity Geo 202: Earth and Ecosystems
Biodiversity Geo 202: Earth and Ecosystems GEOL 202
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carly Rocco on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 202 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Michael L McKinney (P), William Gray Dean in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
Biodiversity What is biodiversity and how is it measured? The number of species in one area (species richness) The sum of an areas organisms 1/25 Rule: 1% of all species on earth have gone extinct since 1600’s. 25% of species are endangered (on the red list). Where is biodiversity? 1. Ocean depth gradient: shallow waters (coral reefs) tend to have more species due to sunlight and nutrients brought on by rivers. 2. Altitude gradient: diversity deceases the closer you get to the North/ South poles. It is the most divers at the equator. Why? There is more sunlight and more species survive in higher temperatures. Hot Spots: where diversity is heavy (edges of continents) 1 acres of Rainforest contains 100 different species of birds while 1 acres in Tennessee has 10 species. Rainforest only overs 7% of the land. Now ½ is gone and still disappearing. Why care? The value of biodiversity: diversity is a natural defense to environmental changes. o Example: the Irish Potato famine. All the potatoes were the same species, so when they were infected they all died. The 5 E’s (five values of biodiversity) 1. Ethical value: they has a natural right to exist (animal right) 2. Economical value: ecosystems services. Nature has a $16-54 trillion worth of service to humans per year 3. Evolutionary Value: they have value for future generations (as food or medicine) 4. Emotional value: mental health of nature Bio philia: the love of nature. Humans have a genetic need to be in nature. NDD: Nature Deficit Disorder: humans don’t spend enough time in nature and it is hurting the mentally and physically. 93% of school children can’t name their state tree. 5. Ecological Function: nature provides us with functions (air/ water) There are 3-50 million species on this earth. 4600 mammals/ 10,000 birds. Around 2 million are known the rest have yet to be discovered. Insects make up >1/2 of all species in the world. 1% of species in the USA get 80% of the funding (charismatic animals like Bald Eagles, tigers, etc.) Solutions to extinction? 4 causes of extinction HIPO Habitat loss (most common) Introduction of species (fastest growing) Pollution Over hunting (most common in poor nations) Current rate of extinction is 100-1,000 species per day Genetic diversity: gene patents is a biodiversity treaty for poorer nations. Species Triage: are all species equally important? Key stone species: species that play a key role in the ecosystem (bees/mussels) Unique species: species that play a role in future evolution of biosphere.
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