HistArt 2001 - Western Art
HistArt 2001 - Western Art HISTART 2001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Rech on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HISTART 2001 at Ohio State University taught by Robert Calhoun & Rebecca Howard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
History of Art, Western Art Unit 8 Review 1. The Good Shepherd and Jonah, fresco from the Catacomb of Peter and Marcellinus, Rome, early 4th Century (8-6) Date- Early 4th century Culture- Christian Roman Material- Paint on tufa bedrock Artist- Not named Location- Rome, Italy Style/Iconography- Similar style to that of the painted vaults of Ostian apartment houses. Funerary style. Christ is depicted as the Good Shepherd in the central medallion. The story of Jonah is told in the surrounding lunettes (semi-circles). Design/Function (D/F)- The fresco was found in the catacombs, elaborate burial chambers beneath the ground stretching for 60-90 miles. Roman law required the dead to be buried below ground on private property. The painting depicts the biblical story of Jonah as he is thrown from the ship and swallowed by the whale. He is seen emerging from the whale. Jonah was seen by early Christians as a prefiguration (forerunner) of Christ. 2. Old St. Peterʼs (destroyed), Rome, begun ca. 319 (8-9, 8-10) Date- 319 AD Culture- Christian Roman Material- Marble Artist- Location- Rome Style/Iconography- Italian Renaissance and Baroque architecture. Similar to Roman Basilicas and audience halls. Looked similar to polytheistic Greco- Roman temples, but allowed space for thousands. Very austere on the outside, but inside were marble pillars, frescoes, mosaics, altars, chandeliers, etc. D/F- The greatest of Constantine’s churches. The church could hold 3000- 4000 people and was built on the burial site of St. Peter. The fact that it was built on top of Peter’s grave fulfilled the passage from Matthew 16:18, “Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church”. 3. Interior of Santa Sabina, Rome, 422-432 (8-18, 8-19) Date- 422-432 AD Culture- Christian Roman Material- Brick walls, timber roof Location- Rome, Italy Artist- Style/Iconography- Early Christian character. Basilican. Modest proportions. The Corinthian columns of its nave produce a steady rhythm that focuses all attention on the channel arch and apse that frame the altar. D/F- church, place of worship. 4. Apse mosaic, Sant'Apollinare in Classe (near Ravenna), sixth century (9- 15) Date-533-549, sixth century Culture- Byzantine Material- Gold, jewels, glass, paint Location- Ravenna, Italy Artist- Style/Iconography- Early Christian, basilican. The exterior is plain, unadorned. However, the inside is covered with mosaics. A large medallion with a jeweled cross on the ground represents the cross placed on the hill of Calvary to commemorate the death of Christ. Moses and Elijah, forerunners of Christ, are depicted. Sheep, representing the disciples of Jesus (and also a symbol of martyrdom), are seen below Elijah and Moses. Saint Apollinaris appears below this, with 12 sheep representing the Christian congregation. The artist intentionally avoided a natural, 3-dimensional look. Instead, figures appear lined up side by side carefully so that there was no overlap. Design/Function- The church housed the body of Saint Apollinaris who was martyred in Classe, Ravenna’s port. The mosaic was created to honor him. Key terms to know: Apostolic Age- The age of the 12 apostles of Jesus, dating from the Great Commission of the apostles by Jesus after his resurrection (AD 33) until the death of the last apostle in AD 100. Basilica- a large oblong hall or building with double colonnades and a semicircular apse, used in ancient Rome as a court of law or for public assemblies. The style of many Christian churches. Nave- Central part of a church building that accommodates the congregation. Aisle- A passage between rows or seats as in a church. Transept- Each of the two perpendicular pieces of a cross intersecting at right angles. Clerestory- The upper part of the nave and along the transepts. The area marked by windows that allows light to flow in. Apse – Large, semicircular area at the end of the church usually containing the altar. Longitudinal Axis – A line along the length of a building, typical of Christian basilicas (Old St. Peter’s). Mosaic- Pattern or picture created by arranging small pieces of tile or glass. Tesserae- Small blocks of tile or glass used in the creation of mosaics. Catacombs- Underground cemetery with passages and recesses for tombs (Catacombs of Peter and Marcellinus, fresco of the Good Shepherd and Jonah) Typology- The study of types and symbols, especially in the Bible.