Chapter 6 notes
Chapter 6 notes BIOL 1441
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madalyn on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1441 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Shawn Christense in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
Ch. 6 BIOL 1441 Tuesday, October 11, 2016 9:30 PM CHAPTER 6 Before we get into the cell, we have to know how and what we are using to view a cell There are 4 types of microscopesused to view cells. 1. Light microscopes-they use visible light that 2. Electron microscopes-they focus a beam of electronson or through the Passes through the specimen and then through the glass lenses. specimen. These microscopesare usually 100x better than light The lenses refract the light to make it look magnified. Been using these since the microscopes.Founded in the 1950s. Renaissance. (1590-1600) 3. Transmission electron microscope-they're used to study the internal structure of cells. 4. Scanning electron microscopes-used for defining details. They also use electron beams. The electron beam scans the surface of the sample; usually covered in gold. Organelles- membraneinclosed structures within EUKARYOTIC cells. Cell fractionation- this is used for studying cell structure and function. This takes apart the cells and separates the major organelles and other subcellular structures from the cell. TYPES OF CELLS PROKARYOTIC-DNA is founded EUKARYOTIC-in these cells, in a region called the nucleoid Bacteria are prokaryotic.Some most of the DNA in the bacteria have flagella. Appear nucleus that is bounded by double membranes. Animal to be more simple. LACKING A cells are eukaryotic TRUE NUCLEUS. Smaller than eukaryoticcells. Protein hydroPHOBIC PLASMA MEMBRANE Selective barrier; oxygen, nutrients, and wastes Go in and out of the cell. Together, the black hydroPHILIC And yellow make a phospholipid • A smaller cell has a higher surface to volume ration. The smaller the volume, the easier it is to carry materials Throughout the cell. Larger organisms don’t have larger cells, but instead, have more cells. Microvilliincrease the surface area without increasing the volume of the cell PLANT VERSUS ANIMAL *mostplant and animal cells Range from 10-100µm ANIMAL CELLS CONTAIN THESE THAT PLANT CELLS DO NOT PLANT CELLS CONTAIN THESE THAT ANIMAL CELLS DO NOT • Lysosome • Chloroplast and chlorophyll • Microvilli • Cell Wall • Plasmodesmata(mouth full) PARTS OF A CELL AND THEIR FUNCTIONS NUCLEUS- contains most of the genes in a eukaryotic cell. It is surrounded by the NUCLEAR ENVELOPEthat separates it from the cytoplasm (the stuff surrounding all organelles in the cell). Inside the Nucleus, DNA is organized into units called chromosomes. The DNA and proteins making up the chromosomesis called chromatin. A human cell has 46 chromosomes. rRNA is made in the nucleolus. The instructions to make it, come from DNA. Proteins are imported from the cytoplasmand are assembled with rRNA into large and small subunits of ribosomes. These Ch. 6 Page 1 the cytoplasmand are assembled with rRNA into large and small subunits of ribosomes. These ribosomesexit the nucleus into the cytoplasmwhere they can be assembled into a ribosome. THE NUCLEUS directs protein synthesis by making messenger RNA, or mRNA, According to the instructions in DNA. Once the mRNA reaches the cytoplasm,ribosomestake the mRNA's message and makes it into the primary structure of a specific polypeptide. What are ribosomesexactly? They are made up of ribosomalRNA and protein. They carry out protein synthesis. Cells that are moreactive in protein synthesis have a more prominent nucleoli. DNA -- (transcription)>>RNA --(translation)>> PROTEIN Endomembraneof the EUKAROTIC cell- nuclear envelope, The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes,vesicles, and vacuoles,and of course, The plasma membrane. ENDOPLASMICRETICULUM- networkof membranes;account for more than half of the total membrane in eukaryoticcells; usually most of them. GOLGI APPARATUS- transport SMOOTH ER- outer surface lacks ribosomes.Metabolic processes;makes lipids, metabolismof vesicles travel to the G.A. after leaving the ER. It stores, ships, carbohydrates, detox. of drugs and poisons, and storage of calcium ions. Enzymes of the SMOOTH ER receives,and sometimes are important of making lipids likes oils, steroids, and membranephospholipids. They also make sex manufactures. It sends, modifies, hormonesand steroid hormones.Located in the adrenal gland in this case… stores proteins or products of the ROUGH ER- is studded with ribosomes. Makes insulin for the pancreas and other secretoryproteins. It is ER to other places. It is more extensivein cells specialized for also a membrane factory for the cell. NOTE: most secretoryproteins are GLYCOPROTEINS (proteins with secretion. carbohydrates covalentlybonded). TRANSPORT VESICLES- vesicles in transit from one part of the cell to another part CIS - receivingside TRANS - shipping side LYSOSOME- a membrane of hydrolytic VACUOLES- they are large vesicles that go to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi enzymes that many EUKARYOTICcells **PHAGOCYTOSIS- Apparatus. They are also selective in what they transport. use to digest macromolecules.The Unicellular and amoebas use CONTRACTILE VACUOLES- pump excess water out of the cell, Usually commonin unicellular enzymes and lysosomalmembraneare this process. They engulf EULARYOTES living in freshwater. made by the rough ER. Mature plants usually contain a large CENTRAL VACUOLE. Inside of it is called plant cell's sap They work best in acidic environments. smaller organisms or food which helps maintain respiratoryfor the plant for inorganic ions. particles Meaning, they carry out intracellular digestion. **Endosymbionttheory- a eukaryoticancestor engulfed an oxygen using prokaryoticcell. MITOCHONDRIA- the power house of the cell. (haha). Conducts cellular respiration. Metabolicprocess that uses oxygento power ATP. Attempt to draw mitochondria The folds inside are called cristae. The mitochondria also has a outer and inner membrane;kinda like having double skin. Inside, there are free ribosomesand DNA. It also contains DNA coding for other organelle proteins. CHLOROPLATS-found in plants. Conduct photosynthesis. They contain thylakoids, they look like stacked chips. Each stack is called a granum. The fluid outside of the thylakoids is called stroma. Chloroplast also have DNA and ribosomes. PEROXISOMES-they have enzymesthat remove hydrogen atoms from substrates and transfer them to oxygen. Thus, making hydrogen peroxide. Also, a special peroxisomeis called glyoxysomes;they have enzymes that convert fatty acids into sugar. They are found in the fat-storing tissues of seeds. CYTOSKELETON-basically a networkof fibers throughout the cytoplasm. It is made up three main components:microfilaments(the thinnest) , microtubules(the thickest) , and intermediatefilaments (in between). The cytoskeletongives support to the cell. The cell moveswith motorproteins. The cytoskeletonalso helps the plasma membrane bend inwards to form food vacuoles/phagocyticvesicles. This is done mainly by the microfilaments. In animal cells, microtubules grow out of the centrosome.Microtubules shape and support the cell. Flagella- snakelike movement;single tail. Cilia- back and forth motion. They are both microtubules. Ch. 6 Page 2 CELL WALL- PLANTS ONLY. Makes shape and prevents the intake of excess water. SOME UNICELLULAR EUKARYOTES HAVE A CELL WALL. Young plant cells will have a primary cell wall, which is more flexible. Between the walls is the middle lamella; made of sticky polysaccharides. Some cells add a second cell wall. JUNCTIONS- 3 types 1. Tight junctions- plasma membranes of neighboring cells are very close together; they are bond by specific proteins. This helps prevent leakage of extracellular fluids. 2. Desmosomes-anchoring junctions; fasten cells together. Muscles cells do this to form sheets. 3. Gap junctions- communicating junctions; provide cytoplasmicchannels between cells. Heart muscles and animal embryos have these. ~~END~~ So, basically this chapter was mainly vocabulary. Questions and Commentsare appreciated. Contact me whenever:214-766-0010Please tell me who you are. Text is more acceptable since I don’t know who is calling me. :P Thank you and I HIGHLY ENCOURAGE YOU TO STILL READ THE BOOK. Ch. 6 Page 3
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