New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 6

by: Kyle A. Headen

Chapter 6 CHEM 1307

Kyle A. Headen

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Thermodynamics, Energy, and That's all he wrote.
Tamara Hanna
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Chemistry

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kyle A. Headen on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1307 at Texas Tech University taught by Tamara Hanna in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see /class/226511/chem-1307-texas-tech-university in Chemistry at Texas Tech University.

Similar to CHEM 1307 at TTU


Reviews for Chapter 6


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/11/16
Chapter6  Energy: The scientific description of changes that take place in the physical world is centered around the concept of energy. The concept of energy is deeply entangled with the idea of objects in motion. Objects in motion are said to have kinetic energy. Stored energy that is capable of causing an object to move in the future is called potential energy. One of the fundamental postulates of science is the Law of Conservation of Energy. It states that energy is neither created nor destroyed in any physical process – it is just converted from one form to another or moved from place to place. The total energy of the universe remains constant. The Law of Conservation of Energy is also known as the First Law of Thermodynamics. The various forms of energy are classified in many ways, depending upon the identity of the objects and the forces acting upon them, the direction of the motion, and whether or not the energy is kinetic or potential. Forms of Energy Thermal energy Translational energy Nuclear energy Rotational energy Electrical energy Vibrational energy Mechanical energy Chemical energy Virtually all forms of energy can be classified as kinetic energy or potential energy. Kinetic energy is a well-defined quantity that is a function of the mass (m) of the moving object and its speed (v) relative to a fixed point. Kinetic Energy = ½ m v2 The basic S.I. unit for all forms of energy is the joule. 1 joule (J) = 1 kg m2 s-2 Note that these units come directly from the formula for kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of an object is either zero (when the object is not moving) or a positive number. Its value can always be determined if the mass and the speedof the object are known. The potential energy of an object cannot be determined, because we cannot know all of the possible amounts and all of the possible forms of energy that could be releasedby the object. Chemical transformations involve changes in the potential energy of substances. We cannot know the value of the potential energy of the substances before the process begins, and we do not know the value of the potential energy of the substances when the process ends, but we can obtain a value for the change in energy.  Thermodynamics: Thermodynamics is a field of science that describes the changes in energy that occur when substances undergo a chemical or physical change. In order to measure the changes in energy that are associated with a process we divide the universe into three parts. The system is the object of study. The system is separated from the rest of the universe by a boundary. The rest of the universe outside the boundary is called the surroundings.  Internal Energy: “The internal energy (E) of a system is the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of all of the particles that compose the system.” “Internal energy is a state function, which means that its value depends only on the state of the system, not on how the system arrived at that state.” “The state of a chemical system is specified by parameters such as temperature, pressure, concentration, and physical state (solid, liquid, or gas).”  State Functions: A change in the value of a state function depends only upon the values for the initial state and the final state. If an object is moved from an initial point to a final point, the change in position is equal to the distance between the two points. This would always have the same value, and would therefore be a state function. The distance traveled in getting from the first point to the final point can vary, depending the route that is taken. It would therefore not be a state function. Pressure, volume, temperature, and concentration are all state functions.  Thermodynamics: According to the Law of Conservation of Energy, when energy is transferred into or out of a thermodynamic system, the energy lost by the system must be equal to the energy gained by the surroundings (or vice versa) so that the total energy of the universe remains constant.  Internal Energy: The change in the internal energy of the system, DE, can be determined indirectly by measuring the energy that flows into or out of the system across the boundary. The sign of DE can be positive or negative, and is always determined from the viewpoint of the system. E is positive if energy flows into the system. E is negative if energy flows out of the system.  Heat and Work Energy can cross the boundary of a system as heat (q) and/or work (w). The change in internal energy of the system is the sum of the heat and work transferred between the system and the surroundings. E = q + w Heat is the transfer of random kinetic energy (motion of particles in all directions) from an object at a higher temperature to another object at a lower temperature. Work is the application of force to an object that results in a displacement of the object in a particular direction (work = force x distance). Like E, the signs of q and w can be positive or negative, and they are always determined from the viewpoint of the system. q is positive if heat flows into the system, and negative if heat flows out of the system. w is positive if work is done on the system, and negative if work is done by the system on the surroundings. Internal energy is a state function, so a change in the internal energy, E, will depend only on the energies of the initial and final states of the system. However, E is made up of two components. E = q + w The relative contributions of q and w to E can vary, depending on how the change is carried out. Heat (q) and work (w) are not state functions.  Thermodynamics: The “Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics” states that when two objects are brought into contact with each other and are allowed to transfer heat, the heat will flow from the object that is at higher temperature to the object at the lower temperature until they both reach the same intermediate temperature. At this point the two objects are said to be in thermal equilibrium. An endothermic process is one in which energy is transferred as heat into the system from the surroundings (q is positive). An exothermic process is one in which energy is transferred as heat out of the system to the surroundings (q is negative). In general, the transfer of a specific amount of heat to one substance can cause a different change in temperature than the transfer of the same amount of heat to a different substance. This ability to undergo a small or a large change in temperature upon the absorption of heat is called the specific heat capacity of the substance. q = (C) (m) (T) Where: q = the heat transferred to the object C = the specific heat capacity of the object m = the mass of the object T = the change in temperature of the object T = T - T final initial q = (C) (m) (T) q is positive when heat is transferred to the object and negative when heat leaves the object. T is positive when heat is transferred to the object (T finals larger than initialnd negative when heat leaves the object (Tfinals less than Tinitial


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.