New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

chapter 3

by: Madison Powell

chapter 3 Psych 160

Madison Powell
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Life Span Human Development

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Life Span Human Development notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

Life Span Human Development
Claire Lyons
Class Notes




Popular in Life Span Human Development

Popular in Psychology

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Powell on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 160 at James Madison University taught by Claire Lyons in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Life Span Human Development in Psychology at James Madison University.


Reviews for chapter 3


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/11/16
PSYCH160 Chapter 3: Social & Emotional Development from Conception to Infancy Self­Awareness   William James thought that the world of the infant was a “blooming buzzing confusion”  & the child made sense of the world later in life o Review of perceptual development shows he was not accurate o The baby makes more sense than they originally thought o Researchers believe they are innately equipped to make sense of the world  Sense of self is a sense of being a separate physical entity to others o Sense of “I know”  Sense of being able to do things and sense of internal world  o Awareness of ones thoughts and feelings o Sense of “I know I know”  Infants are aware of their bodies as separate from the objects around them o They are able to interact with the physical world  Piaget said they can intentionally vary their actions to see what will happen next  They interact with others  o Showing an awareness of “you” and “me” o Rochat says infants show this at about 2 months  Research of if infants can recognize themselves in a mirror o Rouge was put on the infants nose and they noticed it  o <15 months they reached toward the mirror to get it off o 15­24 months they reached toward their nose to get it off o Before 15 months they did not recognize their reflection  Self­referential means they have a mental representation of me and can think about  themselves and reflect on themselves (“I know I know”) o Related to brain maturation in left hemisphere in temporal cortex o Becomes apparent because of the increasing ability to use language Emotions  Even though they cant talk about emotions they can display them  Emotions are a response to the world that emerge from interaction between the self and  environment  Emotional states involve physiological responses and cognitive reactions  Emotional experience involves reflection on how we are feeling (doesn’t develop until  later)  Primary (Basic) emotions are present in first months o Fear, distress, pleasure and joy  Secondary (Self Conscious) emotions come after first year between 15­24 months  o Pride, shame, embarrassment (requires awareness of others)  Complex emotions become evaluative bc they involve judgment of one’s behavior o For judgment they must be aware of what rules of behavior are in their culture o At about 2 ½ years  Infants require help from adults to control their emotions o Difficulties controlling associated with level of development of the prefrontal  cortex (in charge of planning, thinking, and problem solving)  Limbic system in brain is related to experience of emotions  o Lower regions associated with quick emotional responses PSYCH160 o Also includes amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus Awareness of Others  Parents support development of infants through physical care, managing emotions,  develop language, and develop understanding of others  Interaction between infants and others is two­way  Babies derive pleasure from interaction with other people  Babies need to be close to see people but they are able to respond to sound and smells  Interaction has positive impact on brain development Attachment: A foundational relationship  Attachments are long lasting emotional bonds between children and adults where the  child gets a sense of security  They last over time and across contexts (Child is attached to adult)  Bowlby felt a child’s relationship with their mother early on is important for  development  Lorenz got baby goslings to imprint on him  Harlow showed that primates who didn’t have mothers had social difficulties later in life  and weren’t good parents o Monkeys were provided with two wire mothers o One dispensed food and the other was covered in cloth o He found they went to the food mother and then quickly returned to the cloth  mother  Studies of Separation o Bowlby studied children in juvenile delinquent homes   Saw they were separated early in life from their parents  Ex: 8 year old in hospital became distant with parents  Found the forming of a maternal bond early in life was essential to later  psychological health  We now know it doesn’t have to just be the maternal bond or have to be  within the first 3 years  Important bc it showed how real life interactions can affect development o Robertson fostered 4 kids while mothers were in hospitals  Fathers visited regularly  Found that the kids reconnected with their mothers on reunion bc they  stayed with substitute parents  Important of how the separation was handled   We now know infants can form attachments on more than one person at a time  Attachment figures are those who children become attached to   Attachment behaviors (around 6 months) are those that allow kids to get desired  proximity to and contact with their caregivers  Proximity Seeking Behaviors bring the infant close to their attachment figure  Contact Maintaining Behaviors help to keep contact once its achieved  Bowlby’s 4 stages of Attachment 1. (Birth to 2­3 months) Child is oriented and interested to people in general and  aren’t very good at telling one person from another 2. (2­3 months to 6 months) Child is still interested in people in general but shows  preference of some people over others PSYCH160 3. (6 months to 2 ½ years) Child has clear preference for the attachment figure and  uses them as a secure base which means they explore their environment and  makes contact with caregiver if they become insecure (signals then moving) 4. (2 ½ years and up) Child realizes figure is also a person with their own goals and  as cognitive abilities grow they start to form partnership with their caregiver so  they can both achieve goals (more flexible) Types of Attachment Ainsworth  Looked at how infants behave in presence of their caregivers in Uganda & Baltimore and  made paradigm called “Strange situations” to explore attachment patterns o Infant and their caregiver came to playroom and went trough steps:  Mom & infant stay in room with toys  Stranger of same sex tries to interact with child  Mom leaves room and stranger tries to calm infant if they get upset  Mom returns and greets infant and stranger leaves  Mom leaves and infant is alone   Stranger returns   Mom returns and greets infant and stranger leaves o Judged attachment on how the child reacted to the playroom, their figures  absence and on the reunion with figure o Combined results of both studies and found they indicated 3 types of attachment 1. Secure Attachment­child explores playroom with figure present (secure  based behavior) & found the more attached to figure the more exploring  When stranger enters child may check with caregiver  Social referencing is when infant checks with figure on how to react to new situations  Infants are interested in contact with figure and exploring 2. Insecure Attachment  Ambivalent/resistant  o Children are unsure in playroom o Cling and wont explore o Upset when mom leaves and returns o Mom may have difficulty calming them   Avoidant o Play happily in playroom regardless of where mom  is  o Don’t show preference for people  o Avoids contact with mom  Attachment cannot be derived from one behavior  Disorganized Attachment   Cautious in playroom when figure is there  Suddenly shifting behaviors  Jerky movements, freezing, rocking   Has been associated with maltreatment in infancy  Impact of Attachment  Children form schemas of relationships that are called internal working models o Tell the children what to expect from relationships  Quality of early attachments is correlated with later relationships and parenting behavior PSYCH160  Older children who were securely attached as infants demonstrate pro­social behavior  Influences on Attachment Interactional Synchrony is a pattern of interaction between child and caregiver where  each is tuned in to responses of the other o Example: wiping chin or smiling and laughing in response to distress of baby Tronick made experiment called “Still Face”  o A caregiver and infant interact as normal o Caregiver holds face still and doesn’t react to infant behavior o Infant first tries to reengage figure & then becomes upset Forms the basis for later secure attachment Also evident in social referencing  Ongoing responsiveness to infants need builds secure attachment as infant experiences a  reliable caregiver Sensitivity is the kind of care that promotes secure attachment o Figure is sensitive to infants signals and is responsive o Respects the infants individuality and guides while also letting them explore o Stay positive towards infants despite demands infants place on them  Posada study suggests secure base behavior is found across cultures  o Seem to be evident in mother­child interactions in naturalistic settings o Secure attachment may be displayed differently in different cultures Spotlight on development: Relationships and brain development Daycare and Development Attachment in adopted children Temperament  Temperament is our inborn tendencies that we have to react to others and to the world  around us in certain ways  Thomas & Chess conducted longitudinal study of infant temperament where they  interviewed mothers of 2 and 3 month old babies (not fully validated) o Approach­withdrawal is how long it takes for infants to approach or withdraw  from new situations o Activity is the activity level of infants o Distractibility is how long infants can stay focused o Rhythmicity is how long infants can maintain stable rhythms or patterns o Quality of mood is an infants general mood (happy or upset) o Intensity is quality of mood (how strong) o Adaptability is how long it takes for infants to adapt to changes in routine o Responsiveness is how responsive infants are to others around them   General areas of temperament o Surgency­extraversion is the activity level of infants and the extent to which  they seek out new sensations and positive anticipation o Negative Affectivity is the extent to which the infant is fussy, fearful, angry or  shows social discomfort o Effortful Control is the extent to which the infant can focus attention, show  perceptual sensitivity or inhibitory control o Behavioral Inhibition is tendency for infants to react with fear to new situations  (activity in amygdala and activation of right frontal cortex) PSYCH160  Kagan suggest infants who are behaviorally inhibited are more sensitive to stimulation  (parts of brain react easily and strong) but they can get overwhelmed by new things and  tend to withdraw  Interaction between parts of brain is more important than functioning of the brain (which  can be affected by environment)  Temperament is innate and there are genetic influences on individual differences   Researchers argue behavior is affected by constant interaction of differences and the  environment  Examples: exposure to lead related to higher levels of withdrawal, boys have higher  activity levels and girls have higher levels of effortful control  Longitudinal studies have found that when parents are sensitive, responsive, and  involved, negative emotions decrease in infants  Insecure attached infants, infants with mothers who have been abused, or infants with  parents going through divorce have higher negative emotions  Infants who have difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to environmental  influences o Dopamine receptor gene has associated with stronger link between parenting  quality and infant activity level  Temperament can also be influenced by culture o Shyness is viewed positively in Sweden but negative in U.S. o Chinese infants are more fearful than American infants o Longitudinal study found that shyness affected career outcomes in U.S. males but not Swedish males  Parents interpretation of infants temperaments can influence reactions o Parenting abilities and reaction to stress can impact ability to manage fussiness o Children of different temperaments may respond differently to parenting  Fearful children may respond better to gentle parenting style   Temperament is not the same thing as personality but the tendencies we have interact  with influences around us to shape our responses and personalities   3 years of age the child’s temperament becomes more stable and links with adult may be  stronger  Fearfulness has been more strongly linked to internalizing problems like anxiety and  impulsivity has been related to aggression Goodness of Fit How well the environment around us accommodates temperamental differences When the fit is good infants will thrive and when its not then there may be difficulties  Erikson’s Theory of Development Understanding emotional development Psychoanalytic and believed emotional development is based on need to satisfy  unconscious desires or needs 8 stages of development where each stage the child was faced with psychosocial crisis 2 stages in infancy are trust vs. mistrust and autonomy vs. shame/doubt  Trust vs. Mistrust (1    year of life) Child gets used to their senses and actions and can trust their body If the child experiences responsive caregiving they will develop trust in the world and  others PSYCH160  If they don’t experience this then they will develop mistrust in others   Says one of the milestones of this attachment development period is trust vs. mistrust  Parents need to guide infants even if it means not giving infant what they want o Example: infant wants to play with knife but parent takes it away but since parent is doing it out of love and care, the infant will develop sense of trust  Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt (2    year of life)  Autonomy is the ability to be able to do things for oneself o Biggest accomplishment is potty training  Parental guidance is important so that the parent can guide the infant and let the child  exercise their free will o If child is punished too harshly they may develop doubt in their abilities or shame  Shame will arise because child feels bad about making mistake  Building positive parent­child relationships through responsiveness and appropriate  guidance


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.