Popular in Life Span Human Development
Popular in Psychology
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Powell on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 160 at James Madison University taught by Claire Lyons in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Life Span Human Development in Psychology at James Madison University.
Reviews for chapter 3
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/11/16
PSYCH160 Chapter 3: Social & Emotional Development from Conception to Infancy SelfAwareness William James thought that the world of the infant was a “blooming buzzing confusion” & the child made sense of the world later in life o Review of perceptual development shows he was not accurate o The baby makes more sense than they originally thought o Researchers believe they are innately equipped to make sense of the world Sense of self is a sense of being a separate physical entity to others o Sense of “I know” Sense of being able to do things and sense of internal world o Awareness of ones thoughts and feelings o Sense of “I know I know” Infants are aware of their bodies as separate from the objects around them o They are able to interact with the physical world Piaget said they can intentionally vary their actions to see what will happen next They interact with others o Showing an awareness of “you” and “me” o Rochat says infants show this at about 2 months Research of if infants can recognize themselves in a mirror o Rouge was put on the infants nose and they noticed it o <15 months they reached toward the mirror to get it off o 1524 months they reached toward their nose to get it off o Before 15 months they did not recognize their reflection Selfreferential means they have a mental representation of me and can think about themselves and reflect on themselves (“I know I know”) o Related to brain maturation in left hemisphere in temporal cortex o Becomes apparent because of the increasing ability to use language Emotions Even though they cant talk about emotions they can display them Emotions are a response to the world that emerge from interaction between the self and environment Emotional states involve physiological responses and cognitive reactions Emotional experience involves reflection on how we are feeling (doesn’t develop until later) Primary (Basic) emotions are present in first months o Fear, distress, pleasure and joy Secondary (Self Conscious) emotions come after first year between 1524 months o Pride, shame, embarrassment (requires awareness of others) Complex emotions become evaluative bc they involve judgment of one’s behavior o For judgment they must be aware of what rules of behavior are in their culture o At about 2 ½ years Infants require help from adults to control their emotions o Difficulties controlling associated with level of development of the prefrontal cortex (in charge of planning, thinking, and problem solving) Limbic system in brain is related to experience of emotions o Lower regions associated with quick emotional responses PSYCH160 o Also includes amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus Awareness of Others Parents support development of infants through physical care, managing emotions, develop language, and develop understanding of others Interaction between infants and others is twoway Babies derive pleasure from interaction with other people Babies need to be close to see people but they are able to respond to sound and smells Interaction has positive impact on brain development Attachment: A foundational relationship Attachments are long lasting emotional bonds between children and adults where the child gets a sense of security They last over time and across contexts (Child is attached to adult) Bowlby felt a child’s relationship with their mother early on is important for development Lorenz got baby goslings to imprint on him Harlow showed that primates who didn’t have mothers had social difficulties later in life and weren’t good parents o Monkeys were provided with two wire mothers o One dispensed food and the other was covered in cloth o He found they went to the food mother and then quickly returned to the cloth mother Studies of Separation o Bowlby studied children in juvenile delinquent homes Saw they were separated early in life from their parents Ex: 8 year old in hospital became distant with parents Found the forming of a maternal bond early in life was essential to later psychological health We now know it doesn’t have to just be the maternal bond or have to be within the first 3 years Important bc it showed how real life interactions can affect development o Robertson fostered 4 kids while mothers were in hospitals Fathers visited regularly Found that the kids reconnected with their mothers on reunion bc they stayed with substitute parents Important of how the separation was handled We now know infants can form attachments on more than one person at a time Attachment figures are those who children become attached to Attachment behaviors (around 6 months) are those that allow kids to get desired proximity to and contact with their caregivers Proximity Seeking Behaviors bring the infant close to their attachment figure Contact Maintaining Behaviors help to keep contact once its achieved Bowlby’s 4 stages of Attachment 1. (Birth to 23 months) Child is oriented and interested to people in general and aren’t very good at telling one person from another 2. (23 months to 6 months) Child is still interested in people in general but shows preference of some people over others PSYCH160 3. (6 months to 2 ½ years) Child has clear preference for the attachment figure and uses them as a secure base which means they explore their environment and makes contact with caregiver if they become insecure (signals then moving) 4. (2 ½ years and up) Child realizes figure is also a person with their own goals and as cognitive abilities grow they start to form partnership with their caregiver so they can both achieve goals (more flexible) Types of Attachment Ainsworth Looked at how infants behave in presence of their caregivers in Uganda & Baltimore and made paradigm called “Strange situations” to explore attachment patterns o Infant and their caregiver came to playroom and went trough steps: Mom & infant stay in room with toys Stranger of same sex tries to interact with child Mom leaves room and stranger tries to calm infant if they get upset Mom returns and greets infant and stranger leaves Mom leaves and infant is alone Stranger returns Mom returns and greets infant and stranger leaves o Judged attachment on how the child reacted to the playroom, their figures absence and on the reunion with figure o Combined results of both studies and found they indicated 3 types of attachment 1. Secure Attachmentchild explores playroom with figure present (secure based behavior) & found the more attached to figure the more exploring When stranger enters child may check with caregiver Social referencing is when infant checks with figure on how to react to new situations Infants are interested in contact with figure and exploring 2. Insecure Attachment Ambivalent/resistant o Children are unsure in playroom o Cling and wont explore o Upset when mom leaves and returns o Mom may have difficulty calming them Avoidant o Play happily in playroom regardless of where mom is o Don’t show preference for people o Avoids contact with mom Attachment cannot be derived from one behavior Disorganized Attachment Cautious in playroom when figure is there Suddenly shifting behaviors Jerky movements, freezing, rocking Has been associated with maltreatment in infancy Impact of Attachment Children form schemas of relationships that are called internal working models o Tell the children what to expect from relationships Quality of early attachments is correlated with later relationships and parenting behavior PSYCH160 Older children who were securely attached as infants demonstrate prosocial behavior Influences on Attachment Interactional Synchrony is a pattern of interaction between child and caregiver where each is tuned in to responses of the other o Example: wiping chin or smiling and laughing in response to distress of baby Tronick made experiment called “Still Face” o A caregiver and infant interact as normal o Caregiver holds face still and doesn’t react to infant behavior o Infant first tries to reengage figure & then becomes upset Forms the basis for later secure attachment Also evident in social referencing Ongoing responsiveness to infants need builds secure attachment as infant experiences a reliable caregiver Sensitivity is the kind of care that promotes secure attachment o Figure is sensitive to infants signals and is responsive o Respects the infants individuality and guides while also letting them explore o Stay positive towards infants despite demands infants place on them Posada study suggests secure base behavior is found across cultures o Seem to be evident in motherchild interactions in naturalistic settings o Secure attachment may be displayed differently in different cultures Spotlight on development: Relationships and brain development Daycare and Development Attachment in adopted children Temperament Temperament is our inborn tendencies that we have to react to others and to the world around us in certain ways Thomas & Chess conducted longitudinal study of infant temperament where they interviewed mothers of 2 and 3 month old babies (not fully validated) o Approachwithdrawal is how long it takes for infants to approach or withdraw from new situations o Activity is the activity level of infants o Distractibility is how long infants can stay focused o Rhythmicity is how long infants can maintain stable rhythms or patterns o Quality of mood is an infants general mood (happy or upset) o Intensity is quality of mood (how strong) o Adaptability is how long it takes for infants to adapt to changes in routine o Responsiveness is how responsive infants are to others around them General areas of temperament o Surgencyextraversion is the activity level of infants and the extent to which they seek out new sensations and positive anticipation o Negative Affectivity is the extent to which the infant is fussy, fearful, angry or shows social discomfort o Effortful Control is the extent to which the infant can focus attention, show perceptual sensitivity or inhibitory control o Behavioral Inhibition is tendency for infants to react with fear to new situations (activity in amygdala and activation of right frontal cortex) PSYCH160 Kagan suggest infants who are behaviorally inhibited are more sensitive to stimulation (parts of brain react easily and strong) but they can get overwhelmed by new things and tend to withdraw Interaction between parts of brain is more important than functioning of the brain (which can be affected by environment) Temperament is innate and there are genetic influences on individual differences Researchers argue behavior is affected by constant interaction of differences and the environment Examples: exposure to lead related to higher levels of withdrawal, boys have higher activity levels and girls have higher levels of effortful control Longitudinal studies have found that when parents are sensitive, responsive, and involved, negative emotions decrease in infants Insecure attached infants, infants with mothers who have been abused, or infants with parents going through divorce have higher negative emotions Infants who have difficult temperaments may be more susceptible to environmental influences o Dopamine receptor gene has associated with stronger link between parenting quality and infant activity level Temperament can also be influenced by culture o Shyness is viewed positively in Sweden but negative in U.S. o Chinese infants are more fearful than American infants o Longitudinal study found that shyness affected career outcomes in U.S. males but not Swedish males Parents interpretation of infants temperaments can influence reactions o Parenting abilities and reaction to stress can impact ability to manage fussiness o Children of different temperaments may respond differently to parenting Fearful children may respond better to gentle parenting style Temperament is not the same thing as personality but the tendencies we have interact with influences around us to shape our responses and personalities 3 years of age the child’s temperament becomes more stable and links with adult may be stronger Fearfulness has been more strongly linked to internalizing problems like anxiety and impulsivity has been related to aggression Goodness of Fit How well the environment around us accommodates temperamental differences When the fit is good infants will thrive and when its not then there may be difficulties Erikson’s Theory of Development Understanding emotional development Psychoanalytic and believed emotional development is based on need to satisfy unconscious desires or needs 8 stages of development where each stage the child was faced with psychosocial crisis 2 stages in infancy are trust vs. mistrust and autonomy vs. shame/doubt Trust vs. Mistrust (1 year of life) Child gets used to their senses and actions and can trust their body If the child experiences responsive caregiving they will develop trust in the world and others PSYCH160 If they don’t experience this then they will develop mistrust in others Says one of the milestones of this attachment development period is trust vs. mistrust Parents need to guide infants even if it means not giving infant what they want o Example: infant wants to play with knife but parent takes it away but since parent is doing it out of love and care, the infant will develop sense of trust Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt (2 year of life) Autonomy is the ability to be able to do things for oneself o Biggest accomplishment is potty training Parental guidance is important so that the parent can guide the infant and let the child exercise their free will o If child is punished too harshly they may develop doubt in their abilities or shame Shame will arise because child feels bad about making mistake Building positive parentchild relationships through responsiveness and appropriate guidance
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'