Psyc 3039 Ch 1 Notes
Psyc 3039 Ch 1 Notes Psyc 3039
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katherine Norris on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3039 at University of Louisiana at Monroe taught by Ashworth Burton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see intro to research methods in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Louisiana at Monroe.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
Modern Psychology Chapter One Why Study the History of Psychology The study of the past is relevant for the present, and helps us understand the nature of the field in the 21 century If the course is being offered, take advantage of it and take it Studying the history of psychology is the most systematic way to integrate the areas and issues of modern psychology The Beginning of Modern Psychology 2000 years ago: Plato, Aristotle, and other Greek philosophers speculated about human nature and behavior Memory, learning, motivation, thought, perception, abnormal behavior Set the framework within which practically all subsequent work has been done (Mandler, 2007, p.17) 200 years ago: Modern psychology emerged from philosophy and other early scientific approaches to claim its own unique identity as a formal field of study The distinction between the roots and modern psychology has less to do with the types of questions asked about human nature and more about the methods used to answer those questions Kurt Danziger refers to the philosophical approaches to question human nature as the “prehistory” of modern psychology… history of psychology is limited to the period when psychology recognizably emerges as a disciplinary subject matter and that it is extremely problematical tot alk about psychology as having a history before that Philosophical vs Physiological both: physical and biological sciences could be applied to the study of mental phenomena; Eventually unified to produce a new field of study that quickly earned its own identity and stature philosophical: 19 century philosophers were clearing the way for experimental attack on the functioning of the mind th physiological: 19 century physiologists were making great strides towards understanding the bodily mechanisms underlying mental processes (methods differed from philosophers) 70% of the general public remains skeptical of psychology’s scientific status The Data of History historiography: the principles, methose, and philosophical issues of historical research the data of science: construct situations or establish conditions from which data can be generated the data of history: cannot be reconstructed or replicated; they only have fragments of evidence to work with History Lost and Found historical records are incomplete and can even sometimes be lost deliberately (John B Watson systematically burned the entire record of his life and career) sometimes they are misplaced (500 handwritten pages of Robert Hooke’s Royal Society meeting noted were found in a household cupboard in England in 2006 detailing the discovery of bacteria and spermatozoa using the microscope) sometimes it is stolen (an Italian mathematician stole more than 70 letters written by Rene Descartes in 1641, and one was discovered in 2010 in a collection at a US college and was returned to France) Altered and Hidden History data may be hidden deliberately or altered to protect the reputation of people involved Freud’s first biographer intentionally minimized Freud’s use of cocaine Carl Jung’s letters were selected and edited as a way to present a favorable impression of Jung and his work; his autobiography wasn’t written by him; Jung’s words were altered or deleted to conform to the image preferred by his family and disciples people may consciously or unconsciously produced biased accounts of events to protect themselves or enhance their public image Changing the Words of History: Distortion in Translation translating languages might not always portray what the original author was trying to say our understanding of history is dynamic history cannot be considered finished or complete; it is always in progress, a story without an ending In Context: Forces that Shaped Psychology Zeitgeist (intellectual climate or spirit of the times) along with current social, economic, and political forces shape psychology Jobs: increasing opportunities emerged for psychologists to apply their knowledge and techniques to solve realworld problems and earn a living for doing so by 1990, there were 3x’s as many psychologists with doctoral degrees as there were labs to employ them –meanwhile, the number of teaching jobs was increasing since psychology was still a relatively new field, the budget was extremely lower than other sciences psychologists figured out in order to get a budget increase, they would have to demonstrate to college administrators and state legislators that is could be useful in solving social, educational, and industrial problems in the real world influx of immigrants with high birth rates made the public education industry grow (public school enrollments increased 700% between 18901918 and more money was being spent on education than on defense and welfare combined) there was a fundamental shift in American psychology from experimentation to application Wars: aiding in WWI and WWII accelerated the growth of applied psychology by extending its influence into personnel selection, psychological testing, clinical psychology, and engineering psychology WWII also altered the fate of European psychology (Germany) where psychology began and in Austria where psychoanalysis was birthed many prominent researchers and theorists fled the Nazi menace in the 1930s and settled in the US marking the final phase of psychology’s relocation from Europe to the US Sigmund Freud didn’t propose aggression as a significant motivating force for human personality until witnessing the carnage of WWI Erich Fromm attributed his interest in abnormal behavior to his exposure to the fanaticism that swept his native Germany during the war Prejudice and Discrimination: by race, religion, or gender By gender: Eleanor Gibson received awards from APA as well as several honorary doctorates and the National Medal of Science for her work on perceptual development and learning director of primate laboratory at Yale would not permit women in his facility barred from attending seminars on Freudian psychology not allowed to use graduates’ students library or cafeteria because they’re for men Sandra Scarr developmental psychologist Harvard loathed accepting women Gordon Allport “seventyfive percent of you get married, have kids and never finish your degrees, and the rest of you never amount to anything anyways” 20 women had earned doctoral degrees in psychology by the 20 century James McKeen Cattell took the lead in urging the acceptance of women currently more than 75% of all new PhDs in psychology are women Ethnic Origin: Jews faced admissions quotas in the 1960s to keep the “Jewish invasion” under control 1920s, policy at Yale was to accept no more than 1015% of Jews who applied Julian Rotter: received doctoral degree in 1941 but was warned he could not get an academic job because he was a Jew so he started his career in a mental hospital Abraham Maslow: was urged to change his name to one that was “less obviously Jew” so he could have a better chance of obtaining an academic job Only 4 African American colleges offered undergraduate psychology degrees in the 1940s Blacks could not live on white campuses in the 1930s1940s Francis Sumner: first black student to earn a doctoral degree in psychology Clark University arranged a separate table in the dining hall for him Howard University in D.C.: major university providing psychology instruction for black students (The Black Harvard) A Final Note the history of psychology as described in textbooks includes the contributions of very few female and minority scholars because of the discrimination they faced few white men are singled out for attention relative to their numbers in the field history ignores the everyday work of the majority of psychologists, regardless of their race, gender, or ethnic origin Conceptions of Scientific History Personalistic Theory: focuses on the achievements and contributions of specific individuals progress and change are attributable directly to the will and charisma of unique persons who alone redirected the course of history the person makes the times A Napoleon, a Hitler, or a Darwin for example implies that the events would have never occurred without the appearance of these monumental figures Naturalistic Theory: the view that progress and change in scientific history are attributable to the Zeitgeist, which makes a culture receptive to some ideas but not to others the times makes the person if Darwin had died young, someone else would have developed a theory of evolution in the midnineteenth century because the intellectual climate was so ready to accept such a way of explaining the origin of the human species Schools of Thought in the Evolution of Modern Psychology Wilhelm Wundt: German psychologist who influenced the direction of the new field in the last quarter of the nineteenth century he was influenced by the spirit of the times (the current thinking in philosophy and physiology) drew together the threads of philosophical and scientific thought controversy arose when psychologists with more modern currents of thought proposed their own versions of psychology “school of thought”: refers to a group of psychologists who become associated ideologically, and sometimes geographically, with the leader of a movement “preparadigmatic”: stage in the development of science when it is still divided into schools of thought paradigm: a model or pattern that is the accepted way of thinking within a scientific discipline that provides essential questions and answers Thomas Kuhn: advanced the notion of paradigms in scientific evolution wrote The Structure of Scientific Revolutions in 1970 and it has sold more than a million copies replacing one paradigm by another is what he means by a scientific revolution advanced stage in development of a science is reached when it is no longer characterized by competing schools of thought but rather a common paradigm or model defines the entire field psychology has not yet reached the paradigmatic stage psychology may be more fragmented today than at any time in history Random Vocab: Structuralism: E. B. Titchener’s system of psychology which dealt with conscious experience as dependent on experiencing persons Functionalism: a system of psychology concerned with the mind as it is used in an organism’s adaptation to its environment Behaviorism: Watson’s science of behavior, which dealt solely with observable behavioral acts that could be described in objective terms Gestalt psychology: a system of psychology that focuses largely on learned and perception, suggesting that combining sensory elements produces new patterns with properties that did not exist in the individual elements Psychoanalysis: Freud’s theory of personality and system of psychotherapy Humanistic psychology: a system of psychology that emphasizes the study of conscious experience and the wholeness of human nature Cognitive psychology: a system of psychology that focuses on the process of knowing, on how the mind actively organizes experiences
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