Anthropology Week 8 Notes
Anthropology Week 8 Notes ANTH 160
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Notetaker on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 160 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Tanya M. Meuller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Human Life Course in Anthropology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
Anthropology 160.001 The Human Life Course Week 8 Week 8 Readings: no readings(Tuesday, October 11): catch up on lectures (Thursday October 13): FALL BREAK 10/11 For next exam: ABSTRACT, PHYSICAL, AND FUNCTIONAL DEFINITION OF EMBODIED CAPITALISM For this week: only one day of notes. Have a good fall break!! What can we infer from fossil hominins? *Examining stone tools/culture as main form of analysis *When do the human patterns of life history emerge? 1. Cranial capacity a. The volume of the brain cavity (cubic centimeters) 2. Key maturational events a. Length of childhood, age at maturation/first reproduction, lifespan b. Only if we have age appropriate fossils 3. Some behaviors a. Methods of food acquisition and bone stress i. Repetitive movements cause certain stress patterns on bones, because of loading and muscle motions/insertions/development Example: lower back issues in skeletons as far back as 30,000 years indicated hunched motions were used to grind grain b. Methods of food acquisition from faunal assemblages, age distribution of prey and cut/tooth marks How do we infer early hominid diet? 1. Dental wear patterns, jaw apparatus, carbon isotope mass spectrometry, associations with cut bones (scavenging or hunting?) Example: emergence of more cavities after rise of agriculture 2. Inference is early hominid diet similar to chimp diet, but greater home range and more meat consumption (high-quality foods) 3. Possibly more tool use, possibly more central-place foraging, larger groups due to rich patches a. Social behavior linked to the structure of resource availability As our diet was fostering so too was our social complexity Example: tropical foragers have ecologically imposed monogamy; arctic foragers have polygamy Culture maps on to the resource structure Emergence of reliance on meat Humans involved in consumption of animals as early as 2.5 million years ago o Deliberate breakage and cut marks o New research pushes this date back to about 3.3 million years ago Recognize that early hominins would not be at the top of the food chain Example: falling to predation while scavenging Scavenging opportunities: Woodland areas along rivers Leopard-tree catches o Not accessible to hyenas *There is a shift from scavenging to hunting shift from tooth marks to cut marks Shift continued: Utility of faunal element –how much meat and marrow on those bones represented Olduwan sites (earlier than 2mya): large assemblages of low utility elements (head and hoof), therefore scavenging Developed Olduwan (2-1.5mya): shift to high utility elements (humans with femur), therefore hunting Early hunting: Actively hunting some, scavenging some that are already dead Are animals easy, dangerous, or elusive? Example: easy –deer, dangerous –bush pigs, elusive – hawks Middle Paleolithic (300kya to 30kya): o Still going after easy animals o Inferred to mean “not so good at hunting” -SHIFT COMES WITH BOWS AND ARROWS AS WELL AS DOG DOMESTICATION- By the Holocene (10kya) shift to dangerous/elusive animals o Better hunting ability arises *If animals are scavenged, there should be over representation of young/old prey *If animals are actively hunted, there should be over representation of prime-aged prey Implications of hominid diet: We will see beginning in the next lecture (after fall break) that the transition from exploiting low-quality resources to high- quality, difficult to acquire resources has implications for the shaping of H. sapiens life history characteristics How does meat consumption and the dietary shift allow for the evolution and maintenance of large brains?