Week 7 notes
Week 7 notes Soc 100-001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by libby071 on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 100-001 at Colorado State University taught by John R Brouillette in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see General Sociology in Sociology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
Media Economics I: Dominance by the Big 6 Journalism’s conflicting mission: (review) o Serving democracy Watchdogs Providing “need to know news” Serve public interest o Serving capitalism Journalists are employees “providing “want to know news” Serve interest of advertisers (owners) The transition economy of network news o How media economics works o In the beginning: “soft” budget constraints on tv Must inform citizens on important information that is enforced by the government Example: Plymouth news caravan showed a variety of things from news to sports but was funded by entertainment shows like “I love Lucy” 4 Big Factors led to changes by 1970s 1. Change in ownership: radio owned media transitioned to tv owned media which created a clash of cultures 2. Government started to deregulate media and diminish public interest standard 3. Competition between networks: drives down money in entertainment 4. Success of “60 Minutes”: reporter centered show about national or international stories and important individuals with a specific formula for story success that didn’t rely on money from entertainment shows Example: Qaddafi and Libya: “Man to be reckoned with” Aggressive interviewing Very profitable Outlier show TV corporations: formed into a dog eat dog world, led to loss of jobs, and clash of journalistic values The Koppel-Letterman Dilemma: o In 2002 ABC considered replacing tv show Nightline with The David Letterman Show Why? – because Koppel’s audience was older people and younger people watched Letterman= advertisers can influence younger people on buy/purchasing easier o ABC backs off Koppel after heavy criticism o 2005: Koppel leaves ABC for the Discovery Channel Ownership Concentration: o Was about the bottom-line o Economies of scale-save money o Pro: high quality product for less o Con: doesn’t make enough money Big Media: Big Problems o Growth of “media industrial complex” o 1961: Eisenhower warns us of “military industrial complex” o 2009: Colin Powell warms of “media industrial complex” Example: media industrial complex exploited a mosque near 9/11 o Bagchikian warned about media consolidation “Centralized control over information is incompatible for freedom” o Late 1980s: 25000 media outlets in the United States controlled by 50 corporations Media became like a horse race: corporations buying up outlets and people Media no longer compete: TV and newspaper operate under the same roof o We don’t have to worry about 1 giant corporation ruling all media because the US government doesn’t like monopolies o The big 6 control 90% of what we watch, read or listen to in US mainstream media Example: Comcast and Disney both own something in every area of media o The media Oligopoly market is shared by small number of producers or sellers Example: sequoia trees Media Economics 2: Media Industrial Complex Deregulation: “free market view”-during Regan’s presidency o Less government=more completion National Ownership Caps: o 1970s and 80s: 7 TV stations and 14 radio stations nationwide o 1990s: 12 TV stations and 40 radio stations o 1996: Telecom act-no longer a cap on radio and television caps became limited by a percentage of the national audience reached Hard to have family owned radio station Big Media, Big Problems: o Barriers to market entry o Increased media lobbying power o Corporate imperialism: values of corporations that they want clash with media values What this means for democracy: fewer voices arguing in public sphere Lower news quality: news institutions have to make money or shut down More media but viewer voices (localism lost) Example of homogenized culture: Simon and Garfunkel’s “Mrs. Robinson” played by large radio corporations (I heart radio) along with a set of songs over and over again “I heart corporation” world Cross promotion: companies working together promoting service and product that benefits both sides Example: Mc Donald’s and the Incredibles movie o Happens all around the world o Cost/promotion is less because you cross promote o Problem: if one side gets into trouble If McDonald’s was selling bad meat, people would associate that with the Incredibles Media Concentration and Synergy: o Synergy: promotion/sale of different versions of a media product across various subsidiaries of media conglomerate Example: Oprah-started her own Television network, magazine and book club Example: Disney uses ABC news to promote movies and writes books about all their movies, have toys and costumes, push soundtracks on Disney radio o Diversification vs domination o Global expansion of media market Cultural Imperialism: o Western media exporting cultural values o Culture transfer through media raises concerns about cultural imperialism o Criticism: a new colonization or a new threat to national identities Example: Baby formula brought to Africa was mixed with local water and made babies sick when they tried to switch from breast feeding Example: Baywatch is the only US TV show that has aired all over the world with great success…can it be offensive to other groups or cultures? Nollywood: Nigerian take on Hollywood that focuses on clash between urban and rural lifestyles or modern and traditional culture but they get to tell their own stories instead of watching western media Big Tech and their role: o Economic power is now based on ideas o Concentration of market cost the US more money o Tech companies have lots of control in the government and lobbying power today They have power to shut down individual tech ideas o European government are working to control tech companies and give them less power in decision making Books: Ancient and Modern: Sarajevo Haggadah: one of the oldest Jewish scriptures o Calf skin pages o Fancy binding with gold leaves o Fancy pictures o Still in really good condition today o Worth hundreds of millions of dollars o Hard to understand: not much context o Geraldine Brooks: famous for interpreting the book Books can always regain prominence/importance Books are a more portable version of an idea (more so than wall carvings, cave paintings, etc.) Books have been written on bark, leather, papyrus, silk, stone, etc. Form of printable communication: o Sheets bound at spine o Hand produced: difficult and painful to assemble o Special knowledge to create and read o Expensive: had to be secured Manuscript culture: Middle Ages-Christian clergy promoted these books that were lettered, decorated, and bound by hand Earliest Printing: China o Block printing: one piece that could be easily/quickly read o Began in the 3 century Elizabeth Einstein: “Economy of Scarcity” o Experiencing new ideas from the outside world-people began to read religious texts, dictionaries, histories, stories and maps o Readers became free thinkers The powerful did not like this and fought back Books couldn’t be stopped: publishing had become easily accessible Books in the United States: o Quickly became the most literate country in the world o Religious text: early colonial times people seeking safe place to practice Christianity o “Clarrisa”: book about a woman Rare Submissive story that fit with the culture and time Game changer for women in literature o Dime Novels: Cheap Written to entertain and geared toward children or people with low reading levels “1 comics” Rise and Fall of Book Publishing: o Late 1700s-early 1800s: prestigious publishing houses open o 1880s-1920s: more people can read, immigrants assimilated, book demand grows o 1920s-1950s: the depression, world wars, radio, magazines, but decline in demand and sale of boos Growth increases in 1950s o Recent years: increase in publishing because of electronic publishing=new titles created and are very cheap to make o China leads the world in publishing o India not on list of countries that publish many books even though it has a giant population Types of Books: o Trade books: where the money is Fiction, nonfiction, classics, hobby books, art books, cookbooks o Kid book series o Professional books: needed for a career field, expensive o Textbooks: specific books for courses or education o Mass market paperbacks: small/cheap books sold in grocery stores, taken over by e-books o Religious: can do well, some are mass produced (bible) o Reference: dictionary, encyclopedia, go to a library to use o University press: highly specific publications, very narrow audience Trends: o Influence of TV and film Synergy Popular books become movies make money on both ends: each helps to sell the other Books can lose quality when they become a movie o Audio books: popular trend with commuters and people with disabilities-blind people o Trailers about books on YouTube Trying to get non-readers to buy books
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