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Week 6 Notes

by: Anisha Karim

Week 6 Notes GEO 101LEC

Anisha Karim

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notes from week 6
Earth Systems Science 1
Bennett, S J
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anisha Karim on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101LEC at University at Buffalo taught by Bennett, S J in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views.


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Date Created: 10/11/16
GEO 101 Week 6 CHAPTER 5 Atmospheric Pressure:  ● Pressure exerted by atmosphere because of the force of gravity on overlying  column of air ● Measured by units of mb (millibars) with a barometer ● Atmospheric pressure at standard sea level: 1013.2 mb ● In the winter, the cold air is denser→ atmospheric pressure is greater than 1013.2 mb Atmospheric Pressure and Altitude  ● As air rises, pressure decreases and vice versa Wind Speed and Direction ● Wind is the horizontal movement of air ● It is renewable and is measured with an anemometer ● Wind Direction ○ Identified by where the wind is coming from, i.e a west wind is  coming from the west ○ Wind vane is used to detect the wind direction ● 3 Factors: Pressure Gradient, Coriolis effect, and Friction ○ Pressure Gradient (PGF) ■ Change of atmospheric pressure measured along a line at right angles to the isobars ■ Goes from high to low ■ Widely spaced isobars→ Weak gradient and weak winds ■ Closely spaced isobars→ Strong gradient and strong winds ■ Unequal heating of the earth’s surface leads to pressure gradient → wind ■ Latitude, terrain differences, and land cover cause  uneven heating, pressure gradients, and wind ○ Coriolis Effect (CE) ■ Earth’s rotation causes the path from the North  Pole to Chicago along 74°W meridian to curve to the right towards  Chicago ■ This is why storms spin clockwise in the southern  hemisphere and counterclockwise in the Northern hemisphere ■ Earth spins faster at the equator than at the poles ■ Geostrophic wind: high level winds above earth’s surface→ moving parallel to isobars; at right angles to the pressure gradient ○ Frictional Force (FF) ■ Exerted by surface proportional to wind speed ■ Goes against wind speed, closest to the ground ■ Cyclone:center of low pressure where surface air  converges into a spiral, uplifter to upper troposphere ● WARM AIR IS LESS DENSE THAN COLD→ causing an uplift ● PGF, CE, and FF make surface wind spiral, converging inward towards low  pressure center ● Inward motion converges → air uplift rises→ cools adiabatically→ clouds and precipitation ● Anticyclone and cyclone Global wind and pressure patterns ● Oceanic circulation ○ Ocean currents: persistent, dominantly horizontal water flow  controlled by wind patterns ○ Gyres: large circular ocean movements  ● Jet stream disturbance CHAPTER 6 Air Masses ● Originate on different areas in the globe      ● Midlatitude cyclones ○ Midlatitude, tropical, and meso­cyclones ●   Tropical cyclone (hurricane) ○ Intense traveling cyclone; in the NH→ hurricane ○ In the SH→ typhoons ○ Develops over oceans, 8° to 20° North or South ○ Winds greater than 74 mph ○ Characteristics ■ Eye: relative calm; air sinks at the center ■ Eyewall: strongest section, intense rising of air and  wind ■ Spiral rainbands ○ Four conditions: Low pressure, weak coriolis force, high humidity,  and warm sea surface temperature of at least 81°F(late summer and early  autumn) ○ Slow moving low pressure band intensifies into a deep circular low ○ Many more of them with more intensity recently because the earth is warming ○ Saffir simpson scale (scale of 1­5, 5 being the most deadly) ○ Storm surge: rapid rise of coastal water level  ○ Katrina flooded New Orleans in 2005


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