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Intro to Psychology Chapter 5 Notes

by: Hanou Amouzou

Intro to Psychology Chapter 5 Notes 92963

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Social Science > 92963 > Intro to Psychology Chapter 5 Notes
Hanou Amouzou

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These notes covers all the concepts about Sex, Gender and Sexuality. Please look over and i hope you are bale to comprehend the materials that are given in these notes.
Introduction to Psychology
Mr. Brian Collins
Class Notes
Introduction, to, Pyschology
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hanou Amouzou on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 92963 at Georgia State University taught by Mr. Brian Collins in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Social Science at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 10/11/16
Chapter 5: Sex, Gender, and Sexuality In our cultures today, the ideas of gender have changed drastically.  Throughout this chapter, we will explore the characteristics of sex and gender and  be able to differentiate them. We will also look at some of the ways nature and  nurture interact to form our unique gender identities. We will go in depth as to how male and female are alike and how they are different from a biological standpoint  and psychological perspective. Sex, from a psychological standpoint, is the biological influenced characteristics  by which define males and females Gender, from a psychological perspective, is our culture’s expectations about what it means to be men and women. It serves as a product of the interplay among our  biological dispositions, our development experiences, environments and our  current situations. DIFFERENCES ON AVERAGE BETWEEN MALES AND  FEMALES  Men are times more likely to die by suicide o to develop alcohol use  disorder  Men are more likely to have childhood diagnosis of autism spectrum  disorder, color­deficient vision, or ADHD  Men are more at risk for antisocial personality disorder  Women enter puberty sooner and live about 5 years longer  Women express emotions freely  Women have twice the risk of developing depression and 10 times the risk  of developing an eating disorder Aggression:  Any physical or verbal behavior intended to harm someone  physically or emotionally o In regards to romantic relationships, men and women are roughly equal o Men commit far more often than women when it comes to extreme violent  behavior Relational aggression:  An act of aggression (physical or verbal) intended to  harm a person’s relationship or social standing o Women commit slightly more often than men SOCIAL POWER  Group leadership: More likely assigned to males  Salaries Higher salaries paid in traditionally male occupations  Elections Women less successful than men  World governing bodies: 78% of seats held by males in 2015  Interaction styl Men more often offer opinions; women more often offer  support  Everyday behavior: Men tend talk assertively, interrupt, initiate touches,  and stare, while also tending to smile and apologize less than women In reference to social connectedness:  Boys and men are often independent while girls and women are often  interdependent  Men tend to connect perception with action while women tend to improve  social relationships  Men often prefer working with things while women prefer working with  others  Men are often driven by money and status while women often opt. for fewer  work hours and tend to have greater responsibility for family obligations  Women more often support others; they “tend and befriend”  Gender gap subsides by age 50 Biology does not DICTATE gender, but it can influence it 2 ways:  Genetic:  males and females have differing sex chromosomes  Physiologically:  males and females have differing concentrations of sex  hormones, which trigger other anatomical differences Prenatal Sexual Development  Contribution to 23  chromosome pair: The mother has X  chromosome and the father serves as a X(Girl) or Y(boy)  chromosome th  Around 7  week: Y chromosome prompts testes to develop and  produce testosterone  Between 4  and 5  month: Sex hormones in fetal brain support  female and male wiring  X chromosome are sex chromosome that are found both in  males and females  Y chromosome are sex chromosome found only in males  Testosterone are found in both males and females but females  have less and more of estrogen. Adolescent Sexual Development  During adolescence, boys and girls enter puberty and mature sexually  Puberty is the period of sexual maturation, during which a person become  capable of reproducing  Surge of hormones triggers a 2­year period of rapid physical development  Primary and secondary sex characteristics develop dramatically  Primary sex characteristics: Body structures such as ovaries, testes and  external genitalia that make sexual reproduction possible  Secondary sex characteristics: No reproductive sexual traits, such as  female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair  Spermarche: First ejaculation  Menarche: First menstrual period  *** Through childhood, boys and girls take on similarity in height, but at puberty,  girls surge ahead briefly, but then boys overtake them at about age 14. *** How do gender roles and gender identity differ?  A role is a set of expectations (norms) about a social position. A gender  role is set of expected behaviors, attitudes, and traits for males or for  females  Gender identity is our personal sense of being male, female, or some  combination of the two Social learning theory: Proposes social behavior is learned by observing and  imitating others’ gender­linked behavior and by being rewarded or punished Gender typing: The acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role. It  varies from child to child, which indicates there’s more to gender typing than  solely observation and imitation.  How Do We Learn Gender? Learning to be male or female involves feeling AND thinking o Formation of schemas helps children make sense of our world o Gender schemas form early in life and organize experiences of male­female characteristics o Gender expression can be seen as children drop hints  in their language, clothing, interests and possessions Androgyny: Displaying both traditional masculine and feminine psychological  characteristics Transgender: Umbrella term describing people whose gender identity or  expression differs from that associated with their birth sex Asexuality is having no sexual attraction to others ***Sex hormones are one of the forces that drive sexual behavior*** Testosterone are the most important male sex hormone. In both males and  females, but the additional testosterone in males stimulates growth of the male sex  organs during fetal period, and development of male sex characteristics during  puberty Estrogens sex hormones, such as estradiol, are secreted in greater amounts by  females than by males and contribute to female sex characteristics  Three points in which large hormonal surges or declines are as followed: o Pubertal stage triggering development of sex characteristics and sexual  interest o Women experiencing menopause later in life, while men are more gradually  changing o Surgery and drugs can also cause hormonal shifts The Sexual response cycle identifies 4 stages of sexual responding as identified by William Masters and Virginia Johnson:  Excitement: The genital areas become engorged with blood, causing a  woman’s clitoris and a man’s penis to swell.  Plateau: Excitement peaks as breathing, pulse and blood pressure rates  continue to increase.   Orgasm: Muscle contractions appear all over the body, with the increases in breathing, pulse and blood pressure rates.  Resolution: The body gradually returns to its unaroused state, both men and women enters a Refractory Period, in which the male lasts from a few  minutes to a day or more, during while they are incapable of another orgasm. In the cases of women, there’s a much shorter refractory period in which she can have more orgasms if so choose. Sexual dysfunctions can be applied to several factors:  Impair sexual arousal or functioning  Often involve sexual motivation, especially sexual motivation and arousal  Include erectile disorder and premature ejaculation from males  Include female orgasmic disorder and female sexual interest/ arousal  disorder (females)  Sometimes involve paraphilias (sexual desire directed in unusual ways) Female orgasmic disorder is distress due to infrequently or never experiencing  orgasm Paraphilias is sexual arousal from fantasies, behaviors, or urges involving  nonhuman objects, the suffering of self or others, and/or non­consenting persons. It includes necrophilia, exhibitionism, and pedophilia Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) also called sexually transmitted disease  (STD). Every day, more than 1 million people worldwide acquire an STI AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is life­threatening, sexually  transmitted infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It  depletes immune system and leaves person vulnerable to infections External stimuli are what people may find sexual arousal from erotic materials  either pleasing or disturbing; repeated exposure often habituates emotional  response Imagined stimuli are sexual desire and arousal that can be imagined; our brain has been said to be our most important sex organ. Examples may be fantasies or  imaginative sexual desires WHAT FACTORS INFLUENCE TEENAGERS’ SEXUAL BEHAVIOR  AND USE OF CONTRACEPTIVES? Environment factors that influence a higher teen pregnancy rate are as followed:  Minimal discussion about birth control  Alcohol use  Guilt related to sexual activity  Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity; media help write the social  scripts that affect our perceptions and actions Factors that predict sexual restraint:  High intelligence  Religious engagement  Father presence  Participation in service learning programs Sexual orientation is our enduring sexual attraction towards members of one’s  own sex (homosexual orientation), the other sex (heterosexual orientation), or both  sexes (bisexual orientation) Same­sex attraction in other species are same­ sex behavior has been observed in several hundred species. Gay­straight brain differences are one hypothalamic cell cluster is smaller in  women and gay men than in straight men Genetic influences are shared sexual orientation is higher among identical twins  than among fraternal twins.  Prenatal influences are altered prenatal hormone exposure that may lead to  homosexuality in humans and other animals


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