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INT296E 10/04/2016

by: Katharine Anthony

INT296E 10/04/2016 INT 296 E

Katharine Anthony

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History notes from October 4th
Holy Nationalism
Prof. Lundquist and Prof. Roland
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katharine Anthony on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to INT 296 E at Pace University taught by Prof. Lundquist and Prof. Roland in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Holy Nationalism in Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences at Pace University.

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Date Created: 10/11/16
INT296E_10_06_2016 Thursday, October 6, 2016 2:13 PM How Did the Meccans receive Mohammad's message  Most Meccans did not receive the message well o If the polytheistic faith ended then the pilgramage traffic and trade. o This meant the leaders of Mecca persecuted those who follow the beliefs.  Abu Talib and Khadija die making things harder for Mohammad (619) o People from Medina come to visit Mohammed and say that he can come live in Medina (Yahrib)  They want Mohammad to stop the quarrels between the Arab tribes.  Mohammad sends scouts to see what's happening  622 BCE he emmigrates to Yahrib with his followers -Hijra  Muslim calendar begins with 622 =1 a.h.  Mohammad proposes to stop the fighting with kinship he wants to change this social bond which is Islam.  If these two tribes convert to Islam they will all be brothers and sisters. Religion will be the new social bond.  They didn't convert overnight of course, but this was the basic solution  Yahrib = Medinat -al- Nagi  Though he comes as a religious leader, he becomes as a political leader as well.  He establishes a constitution  He begins to get revelations on commercial, trade, political problems.  Independent state, city. Not part of Mecca. It was located around an oasis.  Agriculture  This brought problems bc Meccans were traders not agriculturalists.  To support these early followers he says caravan raids are cool.  It was not illegal but I mean it wasn't really cool with the Meccan caravaners.  This brings skirmishes.  Verses revealed to him in Medina are longer than those in Mecca.  Quran is started in the longer verses to the shorter verses.  This means they are out of chronological order. o 630 Muslims take over Mecca somewhat peacefully.  Mohammad made an arrangement with the Kaaba  Said to the Meccans you can keep it as a religious shrine, but it will now just be a Muslim shrine and Muslim pilgrimage.  You throw out all those 360 gods.  All gestures and actions can stay.  The rock is now the stone almost used to sacrifice Ishmael.  The shrine stays valid but changes its context.  Nearly all Meccans convert, and nearly all the tribes also convert. o the entire area of the Arabic peninsula like Yemen, Oman, and a fair portion of Saudi Arabia. o 632 Mohammad dies.  He does not name a successor causing a problem.  Mohammad was the last prophet, meaning he would not have a sucessor like him. His role would be primarily a political role and to make sure practices were enforced.  Khalifat rasulallah  Deputy of the messenger of God  Anglicized to Caliph  Caliphate  This lasts till 1923. Turkey abolishes the caliphates by Ataturk when he creates the democracy The First Caliph  There was a debate. Some though they should be from Medina, some thought the first followers, some thought should it should be in Mohammad's family o Family wise it would have been Ali, Mohammad's cousin and brother in law (since he married Fatima, Mohammad's daughter) o Rashidun (Four rightous ones)  Abu Bakr becomes the first Caliph (632-634) o Faces a problem, some of them didn't want to follow him even though they pledge allegiance to Abu Bakr.  These tribes breaking away from the group (umma) to the Muslims, since it was a theocracy in a sense they see it as apostasy (someone who reneges on their faith).  Umar (634-44) o This brings the Wars of Apostasy (Ridda wars) trying to bring them back into the religious fold, forgives them and has them conquer areas in the Byzantine empire and the Sassanid empire.  Muslims divided the world up in Dai- Al islam and the dar- al harb  House of Islam and the House of War  Spread Islamic control over as much territory as you could. Turn as much of the dar al harb into dar al islam.  Didn’t mean you had to force inhabitants in Islam.  Eventually people begin to convert not out of force but because they want to.  Jews and Christians were considered "People of the Book", scriptures from the same God, from the Muslim point of view it was corrupted in some form.  The Quran builds on these scriptures but are different  The Jews and Christians were to be protected peoples or Dhimmis and were not to be forced to convert.  They have to pay higher taxes and have certain restrictions  Not to build or repair synagogues or churches.  Don't be noisy if Muslims are praying  Couldn't ride horses  Couldn't give their kids muslim names  Had to dress differently  Had religious freedom  Had their own societies  Had their own laws  Basically have communal autonomy  These taxes weren't higher than what they paid under the earlier empires.  There was harassment and discrimination but it was rare.  Jews were better off in Islamic ruled areas than in Europe  The conquest was so swift for two reasons  People hated the empires (Byzantine and Sassanid)  The weather was what they were used to. o He tries to keep his military away from the settled areas because he doesn't want them to become corrupt.  This doesn't work because people are going to mingle no matter what.  Uthman ( 644-52) o Tries to make one version of the Quran.  All other versions are burned. o Accused of nepotism  He did do that. o Lived luxuriously o Is assassinated by another muslim  Ali ( 658-661) Homework  Quran chapters in email


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