New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chemistry Chapter 6 Reading Notes

by: Madelyne Crawford

Chemistry Chapter 6 Reading Notes CHEM-111

Marketplace > Campbell University > Chemistry > CHEM-111 > Chemistry Chapter 6 Reading Notes
Madelyne Crawford


Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover everything in chapter six.
General Chemistry
Dr. Kesling
Class Notes
General Chemistry
25 ?




Popular in General Chemistry

Popular in Chemistry

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madelyne Crawford on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM-111 at Campbell University taught by Dr. Kesling in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at Campbell University.

Similar to CHEM-111 at

Popular in Chemistry


Reviews for Chemistry Chapter 6 Reading Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/11/16
Chapter 6: Thermochemistry By Madelyne Crawford 6.1: Chemical Hand Warmers  Thermochemistry- study of the relationships between chemistry and energy  Chemical reactions exchange energy with their surroundings 6.2: The Nature of Energy- Key Definitions  REVIEW: o Energy is the capacity to do work o Work is the result of a force through a distance  Heat- the flow of energy caused by a temperature difference (transfers energy)  Kinetic energy- energy associated with the motion of an object o Kinetic energy= 0.5(mv^2)  Thermal energy- energy associated with the temperature of an object o This is a type of kinetic energy because it arises from the motion of atoms or molecules within the substance  Potential energy- energy associated with the position or composition of an object  Chemical energy- energy associated with the relative positions of electrons and nuclei in atoms and molecules (also a form of potential energy)  Law of conservation of energy- energy can neither be created nor destroyed o Energy is transferred from object to object and can take on different forms  System- understanding and tracking energy changes through investigation o System’s surroundings- everything with which the system can exchange energy  Joule (J)- SI unit of energy o 1 J= 1kg(m^2/s^2)  calorie- 4.184 J  Calorie- (nutritional unit) = 1000 calories o 1 Cal=1 kcal=1000 cal  kilowatt-hour (KWh)- 3.60 X 10^6 J 6.3: The First Law of Thermodynamics- There is No Free Lunch  thermodynamics- general study of energy and its interconversions o most fundamental laws of science  1. Law of energy conservation- the total energy of the universe is constant o with energy, you cannot get something for nothing- you can only break even o energy is ALWAYS conserved  internal energy (E)- the sum of kinetic and potential energies of all of the particles that compose the system o this is a state function- value depends only on the state of the system, not on how the system arrived at that state o temperature, pressure, concentration, and physical state  if reactants have high internal energy than products, the change in energy systems is negative and energy flows out of the system into the surroundings  if reactants have low internal energy than products, change in energy systems is positive and energy flows into the system from the surroundings  change in internal energy of the system= q + w (q is heat transferred and w is work done) 6.4: Quantifying Heat and Work  thermal equilibrium- heat transfer from object to object stops because the two have reached the same temp; no additional transfer of heat  heat capacity (C)- quantity of heat required to change its temp by one degree Celsius  specific heat capacity- measure of the intrinsic capacity of a substance to absorb heat; amount of heat required to raise the temp of 1 gram of substance by one degree Celsius  molar heat capacity- amount of heat required to raise the temp of one mole of substance by one degree Celsius  pressure-volume work- occurs when force is caused by a volume change against an external pressure o w = -external pressure X change in volume 6.5: Measuring Change in Internal Energy for Chemical Reactions  calorimetry- measures the heat evolved in a chem reaction; measure thermal energy exchanged between the reaction and the surroundings by observing change in temp  bomb calorimeter- measures change in internal energy for combustion reactions o bomb= sealed container that ensures reaction occurs at constant volume 6.6: Enthalpy- The Heat Evolved in a Chemical Reaction at Constant Pressure  enthalpy- sum of its internal energy and the product of its pressure and volume  endothermic reaction- a chemical reaction with a positive change in enthalpy; absorbs heat from its surroundings  exothermic reaction- chem reaction with a negative change in enthalpy; gives off heat to its surroundings  enthalpy of reaction (or heat of reaction)- enthalpy change in a chem reaction; depends on the amount of material undergoing the reaction o amount of heat generated or absorbed depends on the amount of reactants that actually react 6.7: Constant-Pressure Calorimetry  coffee-cup calorimeter- measures enthalpy change for chemical reactions (H rx) for many aqueous reactions o occurs at constant pressure and measures change in enthalpy for a reaction 6.8: Relationships Involving Enthalpy Change for Chem Reactions (H rx)  1. If a chemical reaction is multiplied by some factor, then the enthalpy change is also multiplied by the same factor  2. If a chemical equation is reversed, then the enthalpy changes sign  3. If a chemical equation can be expressed as the sum of a series of steps, then enthalpy change for the overall equation is the sum of the heats of reaction for each step o Hess’s law 6.9: Determining Enthalpies of Reaction from Standard Enthalpies of Formation  Standard state: o For gas- pure gas at pressure of exactly one atm o For liquid or solid- pure substance in its most stable form at a pressure of one atm and the temp of interest (25 degrees C) o For substance in solution- concentration of exactly one M  Standard Enthalpy change- the change in enthalpy for a process when all reactants and products are in their standard states  Standard enthalpy of formation: o For a pure compound- change in enthalpy when one mol of the compound forms from its constituent elements in their standard states o For pure element- standard enthalpy of formation = 0 o Standard heat of formation 6.10: Energy Use and the Environment  Different kinds of air pollutants:  1. Sulfur oxides- produced during coal-fired electricity generation and industrial metal refining  2. Carbon monoxide- forms during the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and emitted by cars and trucks  3. Nitrogen oxides- emitted by motor vehicles, fossil-fuel based electricity generation plants, and high-temp combustion processes occurring in air o orange dark gas that causes dark haze over polluted cities  4. Ozone- produced when some products of fossil fuel combustion react in the presence of sunlight o photochemical smog- products of the reaction


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.