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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katharine Anthony on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 209 at Pace University taught by Professor Roland in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Israel/Palestine: Heritage/Challenge in History at Pace University.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
09_28_2016 Wednesday, September 28, 2016 1:21 PM 1929 o There was a conflict over the Western Wall The Jews started building a partition on the floor along the wall for men and women and chairs There was a riot after this that spread from the Western Wall to the entire country. Hundreds of Arabs and Jews died after this skirmish The british did very little to stop this. This investigating committee goes in and it's the same story of land and everything being taken and destroyed. o Pastfield White Paper (1930) Try to be more neutral More even handed This upset the zionists and the head of the Jewish Agency Chaim Weizmann (First President when Israel becomes independent) protests This leads to the Weizmann Letter in 1931 Don't worry we're not reneging on the promise to the Jews 1933 o Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany legally in January of 1933 The German Jews were unhappy with this if they knew what the Nazi Ideology but if they didn't they didn't think this was going to go so bad. German Jews were very assimilated, even though there was some underlying anti-Semitism Germany let them get out early on, it wasn't until the Final Solution was created that it was too late for some Jews to leave. It's very hard to get visas because of the Great Depression in capitalist countries. (St. Louis incident) 1880's-1890's lots of Jewish people came into Argentina and again during World War II as well. Adolf Eichmann Hid in Argentina. Murdered thousands of Jews. 1960, Mossad went to Argentina and found Eichmann, kidnapped him, tried and hanged him for crimes against humanity. He's the only one ever applied to. Important teaching event. Up until then, Israel was not super sympathetic to Holocaust victims and survivors. This is because Israelis said they went like sheep to the slaughter and fought back. Few very brave did in fact and fight back. They were building a new Israeli who stands up and fights and didn't go like sheep to the slaughter. When this trial was on day and night, Israelis woke up and saw what really happened. This means now and days Palestinians who commit attacks, kill Jews, bombings, the death penalty is never applied to them. Only life imprisonment but they could escape. Israelis are known to do anything to get an Israeli prisoner back. 1000 Palestinians= 1 Israeli Palestinians homes get destroyed if one person's family member attacks. German, Austrian and Czech Jews all throughout the 1930s are trying to get out but they can't get into Capitalist countries and there is a flare up of anti-Semitisms. The only place they can go is Palestine. Many of them aren't actually Zionists, they were assimilated and had no interest. But it’s the only place they can go. The Palestinians get upset because the immigration rates are going up wildly. The reaction of the Arabs is that they are pissed because The Great Revolt (1936-1939) o The Arabs finally revolt over resentment at the increased immigration of the Jews. o Starts as a strike and then turns violent This is as much against the British as it is against the Jews. The Jewish militia ( Hagana) comes into its own with the British training them This upsets the Arabs more. o First example of Palestinian Arab Nationalism begins. The Arabs asked the upper class to contribute tremendously and they do.Once the war starts to break out 1947-1948 they say here we go again. Lots of Palestinian leadership leave in 1947 to Lebanon or Egypt. This left them leaderless because they didn't want to be tapped for funding. Royal Commission/Peel Commission o Come out with a report that says "This conflict is irrepressible and maybe you should partition it. They recommend a very small area for a partition and if you don't want to do a partition you should stop immigration being so much. They think about the partition in '37,'38. Macdonald White Paper (1939) o Going to allow up to 15,000 a year , so 75,000 in 5 years. Just in time when the Jews most need sanctuary and then there will be no more immigration unless the Arabs approve. o In 10 years Palestine will become independent provided there will be sufficient leadership. This will provide an Arab state o There will also be less Jewish land ownership o British policy within the 20 year period changes to be more for the Arabs because they don't want to alienate any of the Arab world because the Suez Canal, and other strategy and other Muslims in India or anything. They could not afford to alienate the entire Muslim world while WWII was coming. o No one is happy about this paper. The Arabs want everything stopped ASAP and to become a nation in 5 years not 10. o The League of Nations is even not happy about this because the British are reneging on their promise to build a Jewish State. o The Jews adopt an interesting position thanks to Ben- Gurion ( first Israeli Prime Minster) The Zionists would fight the white paper like there was no war. And fight the war as if there was no white paper. That means that they will strive for independence and continue bringing in immigrants (even illegally) they will take the side of the British however during the war. They didn't really have a choice because what were they going to do fight with the Nazis? They'll support the war and gained invaulable fighting experience and at the same time they fought against the white paper. Zionists during 1939 Many are settling in agriculture and going into cities They are preparing for statehood with building up agriculture with Kibbutz's because it was easier to farm land together. o Totally collective communal farm o Moshav's also existed and were less communal They decide they want to have a political organization amongst the Jewish community for everyone. o Many started in eastern europe o The Zionists set up a parliament with all the different parties were represented Revisionists- most extreme Likuol party Religious parties Modern Orthodox Believed that there should be a Jewish state but it should be a religious Jewish state. Ultra-Orthodox Rejected the idea of Zionism even though they were coming to mandated Palestine because they believed they weren't supposed to come there until the Messiah came. Zionist Socialists Labor Party General Zionists Secular Not socialist o Exectutive council - Vaad leumi o Developed schools Many tracts and options British also made schools also. Arab Muslims mostly went to these schools Arab Christians went to missionary schools o Developed healthcare and a hospital Hadassah British are supposed to be responsible and they do and the Arab pop. Uses that. o Labor Union - Histadrut o Created military Stern Gang ( lehi) Irgun (etsel) o All of this was done in Hebrew which was unusual because in the early years there was a question of languages. Eastern Europeans wanted Yiddish, some wanted German, and some said Hebrew. Hebrew was the language of what most of the men knew of their religious study. If you want to bring together all the other types of Jews with the Ashkenazi Jews. The problem is that Hebrew is an ancient language. There were attempts to bring Hebrew into a more modern age. Most people didn't speak Hebrew. They had to make it a more modern language. They pushed people to speak Hebrew, this leads to the development to a whole culture in Hebrew. Doing all of this they are making a society and building a state. They are going from being immigrants from all over the place having ancient connections with modern ones. o The British didn't interfere with this at all. When 1948 came around to have a state, they had a state already. They have the Knesset already, they have The cabinet and everything already in place. The Hagana becomes the IDF (Israeli Defense Forces). Daughters of the Nation o Immigrant Jewish Women in the 1920's and 1930's and how they were Women could not get immigration certificates themselves and had to be dependents Once they enter the country they are forced into domestic jobs and when they do get jobs it's not good work and is low paid. The Labor Union tried to help them get work. Middle class women could work until they were married and once they were married they had to work at home. If they were at the public arena but wanted to do social welfare for lower class women. The few skilled profession women who went into clerical work, teaching and textiles. Most of them stopped when they were married. This was important to what happened to Jewish women between Ashkenazi than the Mizrahi ones, unless the Mizrahi women were poor then they had to work. Palestinian Arab 1920s and 1930's o Basically after the Arab revolt many left Palestine especially if they were rich. Refugees tell their children about pre- war Palestine being a paradise. Felt a void and no one to connect to, the minority Stone houses and olive trees, fruit trees, Idyllic existence Women worked their heads off but compared to their lives in refugee camps it was possibly. Many thought they would be coming homes and that it would be temporary. Many refugees still have the key to their houses in Gradual radicalization They feel displacement o Divisions amongst Arabs Muslims and Christians (10%) Christians lived more in cities, Bethlehem, Jerusalem, Jaffa Muslims in villages Palestinian land owners and the Urban Notables (ayan) Notables lived in Jerusalem and Jaffa Clans ( Hamula) There would be a chief (mukdar) o Main Goals of the Palestinian Arabs Stop Jewish Immigration To get rid of the British, to be their own independent nation. British tried to bring about a communal council with Jews and Arabs and British on it. The Arabs refused. The British wanted a legislative assembly with the three groups and the Arabs again refused. This doesn't mean they didn't have institutions Supreme Muslim Council Arab Higher Committee Muslim Christian Associations There were leading (Jersusalem) families among the Arabs Nashashibis Khalidis Husaynis Became the major Palestinian leader of this period Hajj Amin al- Husaynis Head of Arab Higher Committee Head of Supreme Muslim Council Met up with Hitler and spent the war in Berlin They both dislike Jews, the propaganda was tailor made for Arabs Helps develop propaganda for the Arabs He's called the Mufti of Jerusalem Chief Religious leader but powers are a lot broader than that. They aren't building lasting institutions, relying on the British for education and healthcare. Many wealthy leaders don't want to pay for the '47-'48 revolt o During WWII the Arabs don't revolt in Palestine while the Jews fight on the side of the British. o 1945 when the war ends International opinion comes into play. International opinion supports the right for the Jewish people to have a state. If there had been a Jewish state in the first place so many Jewish lives would have been saved and the war might have been avoided. The Arabs get nervous. Displaced persons camps start appearing mostly in Germany. Refugees from all over who had fled from the fighting during the war. The main question was how to resettle them. There were 200,000 Jewish holocaust survivors Many wanted to go to the US and Canada and many wanted to go to Palestine. The anglo- american comittees interviewed these displaced Jews and told the British they have to take away the Macdonald White Paper. The Jewish organizations get pissed and Jewish Terrorists begin attacking British officials and attacking British institutes. The King David Hotel is blown up by the Irgun because it was a British Headquarters. This was the last straw for the British. o 1947 the British pull out of Israel and many of their other colonies, before they pull out however the British drops the problem into the lap of the UN. They can't reconcile these two people, they're gonna leave. It was the League of Nations that gave us this, you get it back. o May 14, 1948 they leave. o The UN committee goes to go talk to everyone Arabs, Jews, displaced persons. They recommend 7-3 that they go ahead with a Jewish and Arab partition. The Jews agree but the Arabs don't agree. Jerusalem and Bethlehem would have been an international zone. This plan is passed Nov 1947. o After that vote is taken Arab leaders refuse the proposal, though the Jews accept it. Civil war breaks out. They are trying to secure land, and trying to grab whatever weapons they can, they want to secure their boundaries. The Jews are getting 56% of the land, the Arabs are getting the 44% of the land even though the pop is 1/3 Jewish and the Arabs are 2/3. The UN was trying to put all the Jewish people in the Jewish parts and all the Arabs in the Arab parts. May 14-15th 1948 the British leave. Israel becomes a country in the territory allocated. By the Arabs don't proclaim their own state. They are holding out for when they attack to try and reclaim Israel. May 15th 1948, the Arab states attack. (Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabi, and Egypt). The War goes on and off for serval months. (Naqba) Israel wins the war, Israel ends up with 78% of the land of Palestine. The Arabs end up with 22% o Why did Israel with a such smaller population win? The Israeli people were much more prepared to fight to the death than the Arab soldiers. All the men were in the army, women were in the army, teens were messengers. Many of the Israelis who had fought in WWII. Gun running happened. The leaders of Jordan and Egypt were divided, they sort of just wanted to make sure that the other didn't take over Palestine. The Arabs had to travel while the Jews had internal control. British leaders helped the Jews. Even though the population way outnumbered Israel the number of soldiers was really as even as all the countries combined. o The war created a major problem of refugees that continues to this day.