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PSC 204 Week 7 Notes

by: Victoria Miller

PSC 204 Week 7 Notes PSC 204- Dr. Chyzh

Victoria Miller

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About this Document

These notes cover NATO, the Warsaw Pact, and recent events including deteriorating relations between the US and Russia
International Relations
Dr. Chyzh
Class Notes
The University of Alabama, political science, international relations, NATO
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Miller on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 204- Dr. Chyzh at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Chyzh in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see International Relations in Political Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 10/11/16
IR Week 7 Notes NATO Expansion 1949-Present  NATO o NATO was created in 1949 as a security alliance to deter a Soviet attack or invasion of Western Europe o It originally consisted of 12 members o As of 2016, it consists of 28 members o In 1955, the Warsaw Pact was created by the Soviet Union and her satellite states as a counterpart to NATO, to defend against a NATO attack into Eastern Europe or the USSR. o After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, and the ensuing collapse of Communist regimes in Eastern Europe in 1990, the US (Sec. of State: James Baker) made assurances to the USSR that NATO wouldn’t expand eastwards, in exchange for the concession that a unified Germany would be allowed to join NATO o Clinton administration  US policy was to allow former Warsaw Pact members to join NATO  Russian Fears o From a Russian perspective, NATO expansion into former allied states and former Soviet territory poses a security threat to Russia o Russia feels that the US broke her promise made under Pres. George H.W. Bush in 1990 to Gorbachev and that NATO expansion is an attempt to Westernize the states formerly under Russian/Soviet influence, thus turning former allies into enemies o Since 2008, Russia has been using force under Vladimir Putin to counter these moves  Developments o 1994  Georgia joined NATO-led Partnership for Peace, whose purpose is to build trust between NATO and former Soviet states  This is often a precursor to a NATO membership o 2003  Rose Revolution in Georgia, pro-Western Mikheil Saakashivili took power o April 2008  NATO pledged that Georgia would eventually join NATO o August 2008  Fighting resumes between Georgian forces and South Ossetian Rebels, Georgian troops fire on Russian peacekeepers  Russia then invaded the northern part of Georgia and quickly destroyed the Georgian army  Russia thus signaled its intention to act on behalf of its regional security interests, criticized US meddling in its sphere of influence o Ukraine  Nov. 2013: Pres. Yanukovych distanced himself from previous EU agreements, began moving closer to Russia. Ukraine split between Russian majority in eastern Ukraine and pro-Western, pro-EU Ukrainians in the western portion  Anti-Yanukovych protestor took to the streets in Kiev, Maidan square. January police began beating and shooting protestors. Violence of Jan and Feb. left 98 dead and 15,000 injured  Feb. 22 Parliament voted to oust Yanukovych, who fled to Russia  Pro-Western Petro Poroshenko assumed the leadership of Ukraine, with the Western portion of the country seeking closer ties and integration with the West, while the eastern portion sought closer ties with Russia  Crimea  Annexed by Russia in 1783, kKCrimea remained part of Russian and then in 1921 became part of the Soviet Union  In 1954, Khrushchev gave Crimea to Ukraine  Now, Russian forces seized the Crimea, the population consisting of a majority of ethnic Russians. After a referendum, Russia annexed the Crimea, which is home to the strategic Russian Black Sea Fleet  Crimea is predominantly ethnic Russian  Russia held referendum March 16, 2014 and annexed Crimea March 18, 2014 after 96% voted to join Russia.  This was a power play to safeguard Sevastopol and signal a warning to Ukraine  Recent events:  April 2016 Russian fighter jets buzzed US navy ships operating in Baltic Sea  May 2016, US deployed anti-ballistic missiles (ABMs) to Poland and Romania, operated by NATO and capable of shooting down Russian (nuclear) missiles. Russia claims this threatens their security. US claims the missiles are defense against Iran, not Russia o The ABMs offset Russia’s nuclear deterrent: if NATO can nuke Russia, but many Russian nukes can be shot down, this hints at a first strike capability and thus a radical alteration of the regional balance of power o Recall US response to missiles in Cuba in 1962  Oct. 3, 2016: Russia withdraws from Plutonium disposal treaty, citing radically deteriorating relations with the US  US has not slowed reduction of its nuclear stockpile and has also begun to modernizes its nuclear arsenal at the cost of $1 trillion over the next 30 years  A New Cold War? o Are the US and Russia heading for, or already in, a new Cold War, as Gorbachev declared in November 2014?  Gorbachev claims, “the West, in particular the US, had succumbed to ‘triumphalism’ after the collapse of the USSR in 1991.” o Despite numerous areas of common interest, a major one being opposing the spread of radical Islam in the Middle East/North Africa and combating terrorism, cooperation is now lacking between the two states.


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