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week 8 tuesday notes

by: Mary-elizabeth Notetaker

week 8 tuesday notes BIO329

Marketplace > University of Louisville > Biology > BIO329 > week 8 tuesday notes
Mary-elizabeth Notetaker
U of L

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Notes Forrest 2 from tues
Cellular and Molecular Biology
Dr. Paul Himes
Class Notes
Bio, Biology, UofL, bio329, cellularandmolecularbiology, Cellular and Molecular Biology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary-elizabeth Notetaker on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO329 at University of Louisville taught by Dr. Paul Himes in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Cellular and Molecular Biology in Biology at University of Louisville.


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Date Created: 10/11/16
Week 8 Tuesday, October 11, 2016 10:52 AM  6 NADH made in TCA cycle from one molecule of glucose(1 round of TCA) ○ NAD made by isocitrate dehydrog --> akgluterate & NADH ->succinate coenzyme a & nadh.. Malate dehydroge--> NADH and acetyl acetate ○ If do cycle twice, would be 12 mols NAD+ ○ 16 made in mitochondria ○ 5 e- carriers per pyruvate in mitochondria  Know where things made in cycles  Ex) if 1 nadh and 2fadh2 mols donate high E e- to e- transport chain, 7 atp made ○ 2 from nadh, 3 from each fadh2  2 components of proton gradient: ○ Charged ..electric pot- charge separation across memb  Measure w volts ○ Concentration- pH gradient- acidifies int memb space  Would degrade enzymes if higher  H+ gradient ○ Dinitrophenol(DNP) inc permeability of inner memb to H+  Elim p+ gradient  Uncouples atp formation from ox of glucose  Diet drugs Diff in uncoupling proteins(UCP) acct for diff in met rate ○  Lead to futile cycling and heat gen  Brown fat  New target for diet drugs  Machinery for atp formation ○ Typical mito has 15k atp synthases  Encoded by nuc dna ○ Stx:  F1: catalytic subunit w 3 catalytic sites for atp synth □ A3b3ye subunits  F0 base- embedded in inner memb □ 12 copies of c subunit □ Channel to keep things connected  F0 particle- attached to f1 to keep in place ○ Binding change mech: Mvmt p+ thru atp synthase alter bidning affinity of site  □ F0 base spins, y spins, ab stationary  Y has lump, pushes on back of atp binding pockets and changes their confo  Pushes out atp every 1/3 turn  Each active site goes thru distinct confos that have diff affinities for subs & products  Open- allows free diffusion  Loose confo allows dsome iffusion  Tight confo has things so close they can form bonds easily  Atp synth thru rotational catalysis where stalk of atp synth rptates relative to head  !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Check PP  C subunitof f0 base forms ring □ C ring bound to y of stalk □ P= moving thru memb to rotate ring □ Rotation of ring provides twisting forcve driving atp synth □ 3-4 H+ lead to 1/3 turn…consistent w # H+ needed to make atp  F0 particle stabilizes f1- site of 2 half channels for transporting H+ across memb  Other roles of p+ motive force  Other roles of p+ motive force ○ h+ gradient drives transport of adp into atp out of mito  Atp more neg than adp so goes down charge gradient(passive antiport)  Pi and pyruvate passive symport w h+ □ Mito specific proteins  Pos ions like ca2+ go down charge gradient  Ca Drives mito fusion ○ Adp is most imp fac in controlling resp rate  When [adp] dec [atp] inc and h+ cant reenter, h+ gradient builds up-->feedback inhibition on earlier steps  …tca stops bc no adp □ e- in nadp to build stuff  Ex) poison complex 4 w cyanide, AA lvls dec  Mut more common in mito than nuc- free radicals hitting the other  Stx and fx of peroxisomes- memb bound vesicles w oxidative enzymes Ox long FA ○ ○ Synth plasmalogens- class oh phospholipidsw ether links…brain myelin ○ Like mito bc import performed proteins & engage in ox met ○ Vesicles bleb off from mito to take material to peroxisomes ○ No chromosome ○ H2O2 inside ○ Glyoxysomes- in plants- convert FA to acetyl CoA(binds oxaloacetate to form citrate)  Citrate either transp to mito for tca or converted to glucose in glyoxylate cycle  Photosnyth and chloro ○ Chloro- in algae..cyto organelle, size of rbc…many fewer than mitos in animal  More genes than mito- havent had much time to transfer genes to nuc  Reproduce autonomously  Stroma- internal space of chloro not in thylokoid (like mito matrix)  Douple lipid bilayer □ Internal memb folded-->flattened sacs- thylokoids  Separate from inner envelope (diff from christae)  In stakcs - grana  Lumen- space in thylokoid  Outer memb perm, inner highly imperm  Photosynth met- redox, transfer e- from h2o to co2 ○ Glucose: light E 6 co2 12h20 -->6 h2o 6 o2 c6h12o6 18 ○ Exp using O(heavy O)- free o2 made comes from water not co2 (bc e- coming off h20 as oxidized) ○ Ox h2o to o2..up e- tower to make atp and nadph.. Form carbohydrates ○ Resp: reduce o2 to make h2o..start w high E e-s..down e- tower..atp & nadh ○ 2 steps of photo:  Light dep rx- make atp and nadph from light  Light indep- use atp and nadph to make carbs(anabolism or catabolixed in dark for E) □ Obut only occur w light..stop at night  Absorption of light ○ Photons(light particle) by mol makes them go from ground state to excited(only few nanosecs where temp moved to outer orb) E in photon depends on wavelength of light (1 mol photon=42kcal)  ○ Gives off e as go back to ground state as:  Heat, light(floro),give away, used/absorbed for work, reflected(absorb blue & red) ○ E req'd to shift e- varies depending on diff mols--> dif mols absorb diff wavelengths  shorter wavelengths have higher E  Light dep rxs- light absorbed thru photosynth pigments ○ Chlorophylls- absorb all but green ○ Carotenoids(all but yellow orange and red) ○ Phycobilins(allbut red or blue/green) ○ More pigments inc absorption incoming photons and inc versatility Draw excess(damaging) E away(antioxidants/prevent free radical formation) ○ Draw excess(damaging) E away(antioxidants/prevent free radical formation) ○ Occur in thylokoid memb of chloros or special cyanobac membs  Photosynthetic rx centers ○ Use chloros- photocenter(Mg atom-->center of porpyrin ring)  Convert photon E to e- E  Accessory pigments trap light E, absorb longer wavelengths □ Shuttle E to chlorophyll ○ Photosystem II- boosts e- from below E lvl of water to midpt  P68 gets excited then transfers to carries(plastoquinones) travel inside memb to photosystem1 ○ Photosystem1-boosts e- to level above nadp+(used in anabolism) ○ …forms z scheme.. Creates p+ gradient as moves  Makes: atp, nadph, o2 & H+ □ Co2 + H+ + NADPH + ATP--> CH2O + h2o _ nadp+ + adp + pi  Phosphorylation ○ 8 photons absorbed(cycle has to go twice):  Use 2 water and 2 nadp+ to make o2 and nadph ○ Proton gradient across thylajoid memb: 4 H+ from h2o ○ e- transfer: 16 H+ per 8 photons ○ Used to make atp ○ Noncyclic- When making o2, moves in z path from water to nadph ○ Cyclic- PS1- provides additional atp  No reducing power  Indep of ps2  e- don’t transfer so make no nadph, but makes proton motive force and some atp


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