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BSC 300, Chapter 8 Vocabulary

by: Ashley Bartolomeo

BSC 300, Chapter 8 Vocabulary BSC 300

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 300 > BSC 300 Chapter 8 Vocabulary
Ashley Bartolomeo
GPA 3.9

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Vocabulary for chapter 8
Cell biology
Dr. Jenny
Class Notes
Cell, Biology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Bartolomeo on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 300 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Jenny in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Cell biology in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 10/11/16
Chapter 8 Vocabulary Transport Vesicles- The shuttles, formed by budding from a membrane compartment, that carry materials between organelles Biosynthetic Pathway (secretory pathway)- route through the cytoplasm by which materials are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi complex, modified during passage through the Golgi complex, and transported within the cytoplasm to various destinations such as the plasma membrane, a lysosome, or a large vacuole of a plant cell. The alternative term secretory pathway has been used because many of the materials synthesized in the pathway are destined to be discharged (secreted) outside the cell Constitutive Secretion- materials are transported in secretory vesicles from their sites of synthesis and discharged into the extracellular space in a continual manner. Regulated Secretion- materials are stored as membrane-bound packages and discharged only in response to an appropriate stimulus. Example: endocrine cells that release hormones Secretory Granules- large, densely packed, membrane-bound structure containing highly concentrated secretory materials that are discharged into the extracellular space (secreted) following a stimulatory signal Endocytic Pathway- materials move from the outer surface of the cell to compartments, such as endosomes and lysosomes, located within the cytoplasm Autoradiography- a technique for visualizing biochemical processes by allowing an investigator to determine the location of radioactively labeled material within a cell. Tissue sections containing radioactive isotopes are covered with a thin layer of photographic emulsion, which is exposed by radiation emanating from the tissue. Sites in the cell containing radioactivity are revealed under the microscope by silver grains after development of the overlying emulsion Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)- a fluorescent encoded by the jellyfish Aequoria Victoria that is widely used to follow events in living cells. In most cases the gene encoding the protein is fused to the gene of interest and the DNA containing the fusion protein is introduced into the cells to be studied Homogenize- to mechanically rupture cells Subcellular Fractionation- an approach that allows different organelles (e.g., nucleus, mitochondrion, plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum) having different properties, to be separate from one another Microsomes- a heterogeneous collection of vesicles formed from the endomembrane system (primarily the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex) after homogenization Cell Free Systems- an experimental system to study cellular activities that does not require whole cells. Such systems typically contain a preparation of purified proteins and/or subcellular fractions and are amenable to experimental manipulation Endoplasmic Reticulum- a system of tubules, cisternae, and vesicles that divides the fluid content of the cytoplasm into a luminal space within the ER membrane and a cytosolic space outside the membranes Luminal (cisternal) Space- the region of fluid content of the cytoplasm enclosed by the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi complex Cytosol- the region of fluid content of the cytoplasm outside of the membranous organelles of a eukaryotic cell Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)- that part of the endoplasmic reticulum that has ribosomes attached. The RER appears as an extensive membranous organelle composed primarily of flattened sacs (cisternae) separated by a cytosolic space. RER functions include synthesis of secretory proteins, lysosomal proteins, integral membrane proteins and membrane lipids Cisternae- a flattened membranous disk that makes up the rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)- that part of the endoplasmic reticulum that is without attached ribosomes. The membranous elements of the SER are typically tubular and form an interconnecting system of pipelines curving thought the cytoplasm in which they occur. The SER functions vary from cell to cell and include the synthesis of steroid hormones, detoxification of a wide variety of organic compounds, mobilization of glucose from glucose-6-phosphate, and sequestration of calcium ions Signal Sequence- special series of amino acids located at the N-terminal portion of newly forming proteins that triggers the attachment of the protein- forming ribosome to the ER membrane and the movement of the nascent polypeptide into the cisternal space of the ER Signal Recognition Particle (SRP)- a particle consisting of six distinct polypeptides and a small RNA molecule, called the 7S RNA, that recognizes the signal sequence as it emerges from the ribosome. SRP binds to the signal sequence and then to an ER membrane SRP Receptor- situated within the ER membrane, the SRP receptor binds specifically with the SRP-ribosome complex Translocon- a protein-lined channel embedded in the ER membrane; the nascent polypeptide is able to move through the translocon in its passage from the cytosol to the ER lumen GTP Binding Proteins (G Proteins) – with key regulatory roles in many different cellular processes, G proteins can be present in at least two alternate conformations, an active form containing a bound GTP molecule, and an inactive form containing a bound GDP molecule Signal Peptidase- proteolytic enzyme that removes the N-terminal portion including the signal peptide of a nascent polypeptide synthesized in the RER Lipid Transfer Proteins- bind and transport lipids through the aqueous cytosol from one membrane compartment to another Glycosyltransferases- a large family of enzymes that transfer specific sugars from a specific donor (a nucleotide sugar) to a specific receptor (typically the growing end of the oligosaccharide chain) Dolichol Phosphate- hydrophobic molecule built from more than 20 isoprene units that assembles the basal, or core, segment of carbohydrate chains within glycoproteins Quality Control- cells contain various mechanisms that ensure that the proteins and nucleic acids they synthesize have the appropriate structure. For example, misfolded proteins are translocated out of the ER and destroyed by proteasomes in the cytosol; mRNAs that contain premature termination codons are recognized and destroyed; and DNA containing abnormalities are recognized and repaired Unfolded Protein Response (UPR)- a comprehensive response that occurs in cells whose ER cisternae contain an excessively high concentration of unfolded or misfolded proteins. Sensors that detect this situation trigger a pathway that leads to the synthesis Golgi Complex- Network of smooth membranes organized into a characteristic morphology, consisting of flattened, disc-like cisternae with dilated rims and associated vesicles and tubules. The Golgi complex functions primarily as a processing plant where proteins newly synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum are modified in specific ways Cis Golgi Network (CGN)- the cis-most face of the organelle that is composed of an interconnected network of tubules located at the entry face closest to the ER. The CGN is thought to function primarily as a sorting station that distinguishes between proteins to be shipped back to the ER and those that are allowed to proceed to the next Golgi station Cis Cisternae- the cisternae of the Golgi complex closest to the endoplasmic reticulum Medial Cisternae- the cisternae of the Golgi complex between the cis and trans cisternae Trans Cisternae- the cisternae of the Golgi complex farthest from the endoplasmic reticulum Trans Golgi Network (TGN)- a network of interconnected tubular elements at the trans end of the Golgi complex that sorts and targets proteins for delivery to their ultimate cellular or extracellular destination Coated Vesicle- vesicles that bud from a membrane compartment typically possess a multi-subunit protein coat that promotes the budding process and binds specific membrane proteins. COPI-, COPII-, and clathrin-coated vesicles are the best characterized coated vesicles COPII-Coated Vesicles- move materials from the ER “forward” to the ERGIC (endoplasmic reticulum Golgi intermediate complex) and Golgi complex COPI-Coated Vesicles- move materials in a retrograde direction (1) from the ERGIC and Golgi stack “backward” toward the ER and (2) from trans Golgi cisternae “backward” to cis Golgi cisternae Clathrin Coated Vesicles- move materials from the TGN to endosomes, lysosomes, and plant vacuoles. They also move materials from the plasma membrane to cytoplasmic compartments along the endocytic pathway. They have also been implicated in trafficking from endosomes and lysosomes. GGAs- regulate clathrin-mediated the transport of proteins (such as mannose 6-phosphate receptors) from the TGN to endosomes and lysosomes through interactions with TGN-sorting receptors Rabs- a family of monomeric G proteins involved in vesicle trafficking SNAREs- key proteins that mediate the process the process of membrane fusion T-SNAREs- are located in the membrane of target compartments V-SNAREs- incorporate into the membranes of transport vesicles during budding Exocytosis- the process of membrane fusion and content discharge during which the membrane of a secretory granule or vesicle comes into contact with the overlying plasma membrane with which it fuses, thereby forming an opening though which the contents of the granule or vesicle can be released Acid Hydrolases- hydrolytic enzymes with optimal activity at an acid pH Turnover- the regulated destruction of cellular materials and their replacement Autophagy- the destruction of organelles and their replacement during which an organelle is surrounded by a double membrane. The membrane surrounding the organelle then fuses with a lysosome Endocytosis- a process by which the cell internalizes cell-surface receptors and bound extracellular ligands Phagocytosis- the uptake of particular matter Receptor Mediated Endocytosis (RME)- requires the binding of solute molecules such as LDL or transferrin to a specific cell-surface receptor Coated Pits- specialized domains of the plasma membrane; coated pits serve as collection points for receptors that bind substances that enter a cell by means of endocytosis Endocytic Pathway- route for moving materials from outside the cell (and from the membrane surface of the cell) to compartments, such as endosomes and lysosomes, located within the cell interior Endosomes- organelles of the endocytic pathway. Materials taken up by endocytosis are transported to early endosomes where they are sorted and then on to late endosomes and ultimately lysosomes Late Endosomes- also function as destination sites of lysosomal enzymes transported from the Golgi complex


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