Sub-Sahara Africa 1
Sub-Sahara Africa 1 GEOG 1010 - 003
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GEOG 1010 - 003
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashleigh McClure on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1010 - 003 at Auburn University taught by Daniel A McGowin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Global Geography in Geography at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
Sub-SaharaAfrica1 10/2/16 11:27 PM • Sub-Sahara is everything south of the Sahara Desert • Major Geographic Qualities ○ A plateau continent that is physiographically unique ○ Comprised of dozens of nations and hundreds of ethnic groups A realm of people dependent on farming for their livelihoods ○ ○ State boundaries represent colonial legacies ○ Dislocated peoples and refugees ○ Raw materials and resource potential ○ Largest refugee population worldwide • Physiography ○ Africa's Rift Valley ○ Tension landforms ○ Graben (basin) ○ East Africa § Divergent zone § Tanganyika ○ African Rift Valley ○ Pangea • Climate ○ Humid Equatorial ○ Dry Climate Humid Temperate Climate ○ • Environment and Health ○ Medical Geography § Addresses spatial aspects of disease, health and hare-t ○ Africa is an extraordinary laboratory § Disease incidence nd diffusion § Widespread nutritional deficiencies ○ Millions suffer from § Malaria § River Blindness § Yellow Fever § Sleeping Sickness § AIDS □ Origins in Sub-Sahara Africa □ Social stigma to disease □ Lack of available, affordable treatment § Bilharzia ○ Endemic § Exists in equilibrium with the population § Many develop an immunity of sorts § Saps energy, lowers resistance, shortens lives ○ Epidemic § Sudden outbreak at local, regional scale ○ Pandemic § Worldwide spread ○ Sleeping Sickness § Started in West Africa § From 400-1900 the disease spread from West Africa all the way across the continent ○ AIDS in Africa § 20-35% is infected in South Africa • Land Issues ○ Climatic variability ○ Land Tenure § The way people own, occupy and use land ○ Political and Economic Policies § Land Alienationunder colonialism □ Basically stealing land § Persistent subsistence Trade barriers in rich countries § § New communications technology □ Example: cell phones • Early Kingdoms ○ Bantu Tribe • Ethnic Areas • Colonialism ○ European Colonial Objectives § A water route to South Asia and Southeast Asia Supply ports along the West African coast § § Shift in trade from interior to coast □ Slaves □ Gold □ Ivory ○ Atlantic Slave Trade • Berlin Conference (1884) ○ European states divided up Africa without consideration of indigenous cultures ○ Results osuperimposed boundaries § African peoples were divided § Unified regions were ripped apart § Hostile societies were thrown together § Hinterlands were disrupted § Migration routes were closed off ○ When independence returned to Africa after 1950, the realm had already required a legacy of political fragmentation. • Colonizing Policies ○ Great Britain § "Indirect Rule" □ Ghana □ Nigeria □ Kenya □ Zimbabwe ® Indigenous power structures were left intact to some degree and local rulers were made representatives of the crown ○ France § "Assimilationist" □ Senegal □ Mali □ Ivory Coast ® Enforced a direct rule which propagated French culture through language, laws, education and dress (acculturation) ○ Portugal § "Exploitation" □ Angola □ Mozambique □ Guinea-Bissau ® First to enslave and colonize and one of the last to grant independence ® Maintained rigid control, raw resource oriented ○ Belgium § "Paternalistic" □ Rwanda □ The Congo □ Burundi ® Treated Africans as though they were children who needed to be tutored in Western ways, did not try to make them Belgian. ® Raw resource oriented, ignored the development of natives. • The Legacy ○ Several hundred languages are spoken ○ Antagonism between tribes § Example: Rwanda □ Hutus & Tutsis ○ Low-level of development linked to colonization § Transportation Facilities □ Movement of goods is from the interior to coastal outlets § Communication □ Within Africa is impeded by desert, dense forest, and lack of navigable rivers in certain regions § Dual economy □ Remains intact, most states rely on a single crop or mineral and are vulnerable to world markets. • Cultural Patterns ○ Population Distribution ○ Urbanization ○ African languages § Lingua franca □ Common used language § Multilingualism ○ Religions § Christianity § Islam § Tribal religions ○ Centripetal Force § The force on an object on a circular path that keeps the object moving on the path
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