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Intro to Sociology Chapter 2,3,4 Book Notes

by: Alyssa Andrea

Intro to Sociology Chapter 2,3,4 Book Notes SOC 1838G - 004

Marketplace > Eastern Illinois University > Sociology > SOC 1838G - 004 > Intro to Sociology Chapter 2 3 4 Book Notes
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Book notes over chapters 2,3, and 4 of our sociology textbook.
Introductory Sociology
Shane D. Soboroff
Class Notes
Introduction to Sociology
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Andrea on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 1838G - 004 at Eastern Illinois University taught by Shane D. Soboroff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Eastern Illinois University.


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Date Created: 10/11/16
Chapter 2: Discover Sociological Research 1. Scientific Method­ A way of learning about the world that  combines logically constructed theory and systematic observation to provide explanations of how things work. 2. Deductive Reasoning­ The process of taking an existing theory and  logically deducing that if the theory is accurate, we should discover other  patterns of behavior consistent with it. 3. Hypotheses­ Ideas about the world, derived from theories, which  can be disproven when tested against observations.  4. Inductive Reasoning­ The process of generalizing to an entire  category of phenomena from a particular set of observations. I. Sociology and Common Sense Quantitative Research­ research gathers data that can be quantified  and offers insight into broad patterns of social behavior and social attitudes.  Qualitative Research­ research that is characterized by data that  cannot be quantified, focusing instead on generating in depth knowledge of  social life, institutions, and processes.  Common sense can sometimes be misleading. II. Research and the Scientific Method 1. Scientific Theories­answer questions about how and why scientific  observations are as they are.  2. Characteristics of a good scientific theory ­Logically consistent ­Can be disproved 3. Concepts­ ideas that summarize a set of phenomena. 4. Operational definition­a definition of a concept that allows the  concept to be observed and measured.  A. Relationships Between Variables 1. Variable­concept that can take on 2 or more possible values. 2. Quantitative Variables­Factors that can be counted. 3. Qualitative Variables­Variables that express qualities and do  not have numerical values.  4. Correlation­the degree to which two or more variables are  associated with one another. 5. Causal relationship­a relationship between two variables in  which one variable is the cause of the other.  6. Spurious relationship­a correlation between two or more  variables that is actually the result of something else that is not being  measured, rather than a causal link between the variables themselves.  CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION B. Testing Theories and Hypotheses 1. Positive correlation­relationship showing that as one variable rises or falls, the other does as well. 2. Negative correlation­one variable increases as the other  decreases.  3. Principle of falsification­the principle advanced by  philosopher Karl Popper, that a scientific theory must lead to testable  hypotheses that can be disproved if they are wrong. 4. Falsifiability­the ability for a theory to be disproven; the  logical possibility for a theory to be tested and proven false. C. Validity and Reliability 1. Validity­the degree to which concepts and their  measurements accurately represent what they claim to represent.  2. Reliability­the extent to which researchers findings are  consistent with that of different studies of the same thing, or with the  findings of the same study over time.  3. Bias­a characteristic of results that systematically  misrepresent the true nature of what is being studied.  D. Objectivity in Scientific Research 1. Objectivity­the ability to represent the object of study  accurately. 2. Value neutrality­the characteristics of being free of personal  beliefs and opinions that would influence the course of research.  3. Replication­the repetition of a previous study using a  different sample or population to verify or refute the original findings. III. Doing Sociological Research Research methods­specific techniques for systematically gathering  data.  A. Sociological Research Methods B. Survey Research 1. Survey­a research method that uses a questionnaire or  interviews administered to a group of people in person or by telephone or  email to determine their characteristics, opinions, and behaviors. 2. Sample­a portion of the larger population selected to  represent the whole.  3. Population­the whole group of people studied in sociological  research.  4. Random sampling­sampling in which everyone in the  population of interest has an equal chance of being chosen for the study.  C. Fieldwork 1. Fieldwork­a research method that relies on in depth and often extended study of a group or community. 2. Interview­a detailed conversation designed to obtain in depth information about a person and their activities. 3. Leading questions­questions that tend to elicit particular  responses. D. Experimentation 1. Experiments­research techniques for investigating cause and  effect under controlled conditions. 2. Independent or experimental variables­variables that can  cause changes in other variables. 3. Dependent variables­variables that change as a result of  changes in other variables.  E. Working with Existing Information 1. Statistical Data­quantitative information obtained from  government agencies, businesses, research studies, and other entities that  collect data for their own use.  2. Document Analysis­the examination of written materials or  cultural products; previous studies, news reports, court records, campaign  posters, films, and other forms of text or images produced by individuals,  government agencies, or private organizations.  F. Participatory Research IV. Doing Sociology: A Students Guide to Research A. Frame Your Research Question B. Review Existing Knowledge C. Select the Appropriate Method D. Weigh the Ethical Implications E. Collect and Analyze the Data F. Share the Results Chapter 3: Culture and Mass Media I. Culture: Concepts and Applications  1. Culture­the beliefs, norms, behaviors, and products common to the  members of a particular group.  A. Material and Nonmaterial Culture 1. Material Culture­the physical objects that are created,  embraced, or consumed by society that help shape people’ lives.  2. Nonmaterial Culture­the abstract creations of human  cultures, including language and social practices.  3. Beliefs­particular ideas that people accept as true.  4. Folkways­fairly weak norms that are passed down from the  past, the violation of which is generally not considered serious within a  particular culture. 5. Mores­strongly held norms, the violation of which seriously  offends the standards of acceptable conduct of most people within a  particular culture.  6. Taboos­powerful mores, the violation of which is considered  serious and even unthinkable within a particular culture. 7. Laws­codified norms or rules of behavior. 8. Values­the general standards in society that define ideal  principles, like those governing notions of right and wrong. B. Ideal and Real Culture in US Society 1. Ideal culture­the values, norms, and behaviors that people in  a society profess to embrace. 2. Real culture­the values, norms, and behaviors that people  exhibit in a society. 3. Cultural inconsistency­a contradiction between the goals of  ideal culture and the practices of real culture.  C. Ethnocentrism 1. Doxic­taken for granted as natural or normal in society. 2. Etic perspective­the perspective of the outside observer. 3. Emic perspective­the perspective of the insider, the one  belonging to the cultural group in question. 4. Cultural relativism­a worldview whereby the practices of a  society are understood sociologically in terms of that society’s norms and  values, and not the norms and values of another society.  D. Subcultures 1. Subcultures­cultures that exist together with a dominant  culture but differ in some important respects. II. Culture and Language 1. Language­a system of symbolic verbal, nonverbal, and  written representations rooted within a particular culture.  A. Language and Social Integration 1. Multiculturalism­a commitment to respecting cultural  differences rather than trying to submerge them into a larger dominant  culture.  III. Culture and Mass Media 1. High culture­the music, theatre, literature, and other cultural  products that are held in particularly high esteem in society. 2. Popular culture­the entertainment, culinary, and athletic  tastes shared by the masses.  3. Mass Media­media of public communication intended to  reach and influence a mass audience.  A. Culture, Media, and Violence 1. Rape culture­ a social culture that provides an environment  conducive to rape.  IV. Culture, Class, and Inequality 1. Social class reproduction­the way in which class status is  reproduced from generation to generation with parents passing on a class  position to their offspring. 2. Cultural Capital­wealth in the form of knowledge, ideas,  verbal skills, and ways of thinking and acting.  3. Habitus­the internalization of objective probabilities and  subsequent expression of those probabilities as choice.  V. Culture and Globalization 1. Global Culture­a type of culture that has spread across the  world in the form of films, fast food restaurants, and popular music heard in  virtually every country.  Chapter 4: Socialization and Social Interaction I. The Birth of the Social Self 1. Socialization­the process by which people learn the culture  of their society.  A. Behaviorism and Social Learning 1. Behaviorism­a psychological perspective that emphasizes the effect of rewards and punishments on human behavior. 2. Social Learning­the way people adapt their behavior in  response to social rewards and punishments. B. Socialization as Symbolic Interaction 1. Looking glass self­the concept developed by Charles Horton  Cooley that our self image results from how we interpret other people’s  views of us.  2. Primary groups­small groups characterized by intense  emotional ties, face to face interaction, intimacy, and a strong, enduring  sense of commitment. 3. Secondary groups­groups that are large and impersonal and  characterized by fleeting relationships. 4. Reference groups­groups that provide standards for judging  our attitudes or behaviors.  5. The I­George Herbert Mead, the part of the self that is the  impulse to act, it is creative, innovative, unthinking, and largely  unpredictable. 6. The Me­George Herbert Mead, the part of the self through  which we see ourselves as others see us.  7. Role Taking­the ability to take the roles of others in  interaction. 8. Significant others­George Herbert Mead, the specific people  who are important in children’s lives and whose views have the greatest  impact on the children’s self evaluations.  9. The Generalized Other­the abstract sense of society’s norms  and values by which people evaluate themselves.  C. Stages of Development: Piaget and Kohlberg 1. Cognitive development­the theory developed by Piaget, that  an individual’s ability to make logical decisions increases, as the person  grows older. 2. Egocentric­experiencing the world as if it were centered  entirely on oneself. D. Biological Needs Vs. Social Constraints 1. Psychoanalysis­a psychological perspective that emphasizes  the complex reasoning process of the conscious and unconscious mind.  2. Id­according to Sigmund Freud, the part of the mind that is  the repository of basic biological drives and needs. 3. Ego­according to Sigmund Freud, the part of the mind that is  the self, the core of what is regarded as a persons unique personality


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