Intro to Sociology Chapter 2,3,4 Book Notes
Intro to Sociology Chapter 2,3,4 Book Notes SOC 1838G - 004
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Andrea on Tuesday October 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 1838G - 004 at Eastern Illinois University taught by Shane D. Soboroff in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Eastern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 10/11/16
Chapter 2: Discover Sociological Research 1. Scientific Method A way of learning about the world that combines logically constructed theory and systematic observation to provide explanations of how things work. 2. Deductive Reasoning The process of taking an existing theory and logically deducing that if the theory is accurate, we should discover other patterns of behavior consistent with it. 3. Hypotheses Ideas about the world, derived from theories, which can be disproven when tested against observations. 4. Inductive Reasoning The process of generalizing to an entire category of phenomena from a particular set of observations. I. Sociology and Common Sense Quantitative Research research gathers data that can be quantified and offers insight into broad patterns of social behavior and social attitudes. Qualitative Research research that is characterized by data that cannot be quantified, focusing instead on generating in depth knowledge of social life, institutions, and processes. Common sense can sometimes be misleading. II. Research and the Scientific Method 1. Scientific Theoriesanswer questions about how and why scientific observations are as they are. 2. Characteristics of a good scientific theory Logically consistent Can be disproved 3. Concepts ideas that summarize a set of phenomena. 4. Operational definitiona definition of a concept that allows the concept to be observed and measured. A. Relationships Between Variables 1. Variableconcept that can take on 2 or more possible values. 2. Quantitative VariablesFactors that can be counted. 3. Qualitative VariablesVariables that express qualities and do not have numerical values. 4. Correlationthe degree to which two or more variables are associated with one another. 5. Causal relationshipa relationship between two variables in which one variable is the cause of the other. 6. Spurious relationshipa correlation between two or more variables that is actually the result of something else that is not being measured, rather than a causal link between the variables themselves. CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION B. Testing Theories and Hypotheses 1. Positive correlationrelationship showing that as one variable rises or falls, the other does as well. 2. Negative correlationone variable increases as the other decreases. 3. Principle of falsificationthe principle advanced by philosopher Karl Popper, that a scientific theory must lead to testable hypotheses that can be disproved if they are wrong. 4. Falsifiabilitythe ability for a theory to be disproven; the logical possibility for a theory to be tested and proven false. C. Validity and Reliability 1. Validitythe degree to which concepts and their measurements accurately represent what they claim to represent. 2. Reliabilitythe extent to which researchers findings are consistent with that of different studies of the same thing, or with the findings of the same study over time. 3. Biasa characteristic of results that systematically misrepresent the true nature of what is being studied. D. Objectivity in Scientific Research 1. Objectivitythe ability to represent the object of study accurately. 2. Value neutralitythe characteristics of being free of personal beliefs and opinions that would influence the course of research. 3. Replicationthe repetition of a previous study using a different sample or population to verify or refute the original findings. III. Doing Sociological Research Research methodsspecific techniques for systematically gathering data. A. Sociological Research Methods B. Survey Research 1. Surveya research method that uses a questionnaire or interviews administered to a group of people in person or by telephone or email to determine their characteristics, opinions, and behaviors. 2. Samplea portion of the larger population selected to represent the whole. 3. Populationthe whole group of people studied in sociological research. 4. Random samplingsampling in which everyone in the population of interest has an equal chance of being chosen for the study. C. Fieldwork 1. Fieldworka research method that relies on in depth and often extended study of a group or community. 2. Interviewa detailed conversation designed to obtain in depth information about a person and their activities. 3. Leading questionsquestions that tend to elicit particular responses. D. Experimentation 1. Experimentsresearch techniques for investigating cause and effect under controlled conditions. 2. Independent or experimental variablesvariables that can cause changes in other variables. 3. Dependent variablesvariables that change as a result of changes in other variables. E. Working with Existing Information 1. Statistical Dataquantitative information obtained from government agencies, businesses, research studies, and other entities that collect data for their own use. 2. Document Analysisthe examination of written materials or cultural products; previous studies, news reports, court records, campaign posters, films, and other forms of text or images produced by individuals, government agencies, or private organizations. F. Participatory Research IV. Doing Sociology: A Students Guide to Research A. Frame Your Research Question B. Review Existing Knowledge C. Select the Appropriate Method D. Weigh the Ethical Implications E. Collect and Analyze the Data F. Share the Results Chapter 3: Culture and Mass Media I. Culture: Concepts and Applications 1. Culturethe beliefs, norms, behaviors, and products common to the members of a particular group. A. Material and Nonmaterial Culture 1. Material Culturethe physical objects that are created, embraced, or consumed by society that help shape people’ lives. 2. Nonmaterial Culturethe abstract creations of human cultures, including language and social practices. 3. Beliefsparticular ideas that people accept as true. 4. Folkwaysfairly weak norms that are passed down from the past, the violation of which is generally not considered serious within a particular culture. 5. Moresstrongly held norms, the violation of which seriously offends the standards of acceptable conduct of most people within a particular culture. 6. Taboospowerful mores, the violation of which is considered serious and even unthinkable within a particular culture. 7. Lawscodified norms or rules of behavior. 8. Valuesthe general standards in society that define ideal principles, like those governing notions of right and wrong. B. Ideal and Real Culture in US Society 1. Ideal culturethe values, norms, and behaviors that people in a society profess to embrace. 2. Real culturethe values, norms, and behaviors that people exhibit in a society. 3. Cultural inconsistencya contradiction between the goals of ideal culture and the practices of real culture. C. Ethnocentrism 1. Doxictaken for granted as natural or normal in society. 2. Etic perspectivethe perspective of the outside observer. 3. Emic perspectivethe perspective of the insider, the one belonging to the cultural group in question. 4. Cultural relativisma worldview whereby the practices of a society are understood sociologically in terms of that society’s norms and values, and not the norms and values of another society. D. Subcultures 1. Subculturescultures that exist together with a dominant culture but differ in some important respects. II. Culture and Language 1. Languagea system of symbolic verbal, nonverbal, and written representations rooted within a particular culture. A. Language and Social Integration 1. Multiculturalisma commitment to respecting cultural differences rather than trying to submerge them into a larger dominant culture. III. Culture and Mass Media 1. High culturethe music, theatre, literature, and other cultural products that are held in particularly high esteem in society. 2. Popular culturethe entertainment, culinary, and athletic tastes shared by the masses. 3. Mass Mediamedia of public communication intended to reach and influence a mass audience. A. Culture, Media, and Violence 1. Rape culture a social culture that provides an environment conducive to rape. IV. Culture, Class, and Inequality 1. Social class reproductionthe way in which class status is reproduced from generation to generation with parents passing on a class position to their offspring. 2. Cultural Capitalwealth in the form of knowledge, ideas, verbal skills, and ways of thinking and acting. 3. Habitusthe internalization of objective probabilities and subsequent expression of those probabilities as choice. V. Culture and Globalization 1. Global Culturea type of culture that has spread across the world in the form of films, fast food restaurants, and popular music heard in virtually every country. Chapter 4: Socialization and Social Interaction I. The Birth of the Social Self 1. Socializationthe process by which people learn the culture of their society. A. Behaviorism and Social Learning 1. Behaviorisma psychological perspective that emphasizes the effect of rewards and punishments on human behavior. 2. Social Learningthe way people adapt their behavior in response to social rewards and punishments. B. Socialization as Symbolic Interaction 1. Looking glass selfthe concept developed by Charles Horton Cooley that our self image results from how we interpret other people’s views of us. 2. Primary groupssmall groups characterized by intense emotional ties, face to face interaction, intimacy, and a strong, enduring sense of commitment. 3. Secondary groupsgroups that are large and impersonal and characterized by fleeting relationships. 4. Reference groupsgroups that provide standards for judging our attitudes or behaviors. 5. The IGeorge Herbert Mead, the part of the self that is the impulse to act, it is creative, innovative, unthinking, and largely unpredictable. 6. The MeGeorge Herbert Mead, the part of the self through which we see ourselves as others see us. 7. Role Takingthe ability to take the roles of others in interaction. 8. Significant othersGeorge Herbert Mead, the specific people who are important in children’s lives and whose views have the greatest impact on the children’s self evaluations. 9. The Generalized Otherthe abstract sense of society’s norms and values by which people evaluate themselves. C. Stages of Development: Piaget and Kohlberg 1. Cognitive developmentthe theory developed by Piaget, that an individual’s ability to make logical decisions increases, as the person grows older. 2. Egocentricexperiencing the world as if it were centered entirely on oneself. D. Biological Needs Vs. Social Constraints 1. Psychoanalysisa psychological perspective that emphasizes the complex reasoning process of the conscious and unconscious mind. 2. Idaccording to Sigmund Freud, the part of the mind that is the repository of basic biological drives and needs. 3. Egoaccording to Sigmund Freud, the part of the mind that is the self, the core of what is regarded as a persons unique personality