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Health HHS 231 Chapter 7 about Nutrition

by: Nhu Nguyen

Health HHS 231 Chapter 7 about Nutrition HHS 231 Lifetime Fitness for Health

Marketplace > Oregon State University > HHS 231 Lifetime Fitness for Health > Health HHS 231 Chapter 7 about Nutrition
Nhu Nguyen
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About this Document

Notes over chapter 7: Nutrition
Lifetime Fitness for Health
Dr. Woekel
Class Notes




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nhu Nguyen on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HHS 231 Lifetime Fitness for Health at Oregon State University taught by Dr. Woekel in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.

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Date Created: 10/12/16
Chapter 7  Nutrients: chemical compound in food that are crucial to growth and function, including proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, and minerals  Nutrition: the study of how people consume and use the nutrient in food  Diets: the food and drinks we select to consume and use the nutrients in food A good diet help sustain desirable body mass and weight and helps keep your fat to lean ratio within a recommended range. o Can help alleviate the feeling of stress and depression o Can help prevent chronic diseases, frequent colds and infections Eating habit: when, where, and how we eat, with whom we eat, what we choose to consume, and our reason for choosing it. Why are my college years a nutritional challenge? 1. Most students don’t think much about vitamins, minerals, and other nutrition or worry much about the challenge of eating well during college year. 2. College student don’t eat much fruits and vegetables. Only 5.3 percent of college student eat the amount of fruits and veggies that USDA recommend. Most students get 1.5 more the amount of sodium than they should, take in three times more refined sugar and saturated fat. 3. College life present obstacles to good nutrition. 4. Nutritious food is much harder to find on and near campus. Other obstacles include: time and money pressure, lack of home-cooking facilities, personal habits and attitudes, and the emotional stresses college can present. 5. Another obstacle that out natural human craving for sweet, fatty, and salty and high protein foods Stress and social eating contribute to poor diet as well. There are several keys to overcoming the food obstacle in college life: 1. Learn about nutrition and what your body needs to maintain maximum wellness 2. Learn to distinguish good food choices from poor ones and good eating habits from bad ones 3. Visit those restaurants that offer a wide selection of healthy food 4. Improve your eating habits and hang out with other student who have healthy diet o Essential nutrients: nutrients necessary for normal body functioning that must be obtained from food calories: a measure of the amount of chemical energy that foods provide. One calorie can raise 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius. o Kilocalories or Calories: a measure of energy that equal to 1000 calories; also designated kilocalorie (kcal) nutritionist use kcal or C when they refer to specific food. o Proteins are major structure components of nearly every cell and especially important to the building and repairing of bone, muscle, skin, and blood cells. It also makes up the antibodies that protect us from the disease, the enzymes that control all chemical reactions in the body. And proteins help transport oxygen, carbon dioxide, and various nutrients to body cells. There are 20 different amino acids that help to build structural and functional proteins. Structural proteins that make up part of cells, tissues, and organs. Functional protein are protein that perform crucial functions, including enzymes. o Enzymes: proteins that facilitate chemical reactions but are not permanently altered in the process, biological catalysts. o Essential amino acids: collectively, the 9 of the 20 types of amino acids, or building blocks, that our bodies cannot manufacture and that we must consume in our food. Nutritionist typicallrecommend that you get about 10% of your calories from a protein in a 2000 calorie diet.  Carbohydrates, including the sugars and starches, have ring and chain like three dimensional structures that allow them to store and supply much of the energy we need to sustain normal daily activity.  The simple carbohydrates or sugars are common in whole, unprocessed foods such as beets, sugarcanes, carrots, other vegetables and fruits.  Complex carbohydrates include the starches found abundantly in grains, cereals.  Our cells can rapidly break down sugar molecules and release energy stored in their chemical bonds. Your muscle cells and your brain and nerve cells are particularly dependent on a steady supply of glucose.  Starches and other complex carbohydrates can be a source of time-released energy. This slower breakdown makes most starches important energy- storage compounds and structural building materials in plants and animals.  In human, cellulose acts as indigestible fiber in one or two forms. Insoluble fibers speed the passage of foods and reduces bile acids and certain bacterial enzyme. Soluble fiber attaches to water molecules, appears to help lower blood cholesterol levels and the risks of cardiovascular disease. Both fiber help controls appetite and body weight by creating a feeling of fullness.  Fiber also helps prevent constipation by absorbing moisture, initiate bowel movement. Reducing constipation helps protect against diverticulis. The daily recommended amount of fiber for an adult is 25 to 30 g. Nutritionist use a tool called the glycemic index to measure the rate at which food raise level of glucose in the blood. Eating food with high glycemic index- the flooding with glucose and surging of insulin can contribute to certain cancer, obesity and overweight. The best approach to control your blood sugar intake is to develop a habit of reading food labels before you buy or eat something to discover the amount of dietary sugar contain in food, then use glycemic index and glycemic load chart to help you get a feel which food raise your blood sugar level. Most low carb food are highly processed and contain substitute sugars such as mannitol, sorbitol, and dextrose. Fat plays vital role in maintaining healthy skin and hair, padding the body against shock, insulating us against tempt extreme, stocking energy to fuel muscle activity, and promoting healthy cell function, carry fat-soluble vitamin A, D, E, and K to cells. Fat is common term for lipids: a class of molecules that include fats and oils. Fats such as butter, lard, and bacon grease, are solid at room temperature. Oils are usually liquid at room temperature such as corn and olive oils. Fatty acid: the most basic unit of triglycerides Triglyceride: lipid molecules made up of three fatty acid chain or “tails” attached to one glycerol “head” containing a three-carbon backbone, common form of fats in foods and in organisms. Saturated fat: a lipid, usually a solid fat such as butter in which most of the chains of carbon atoms are loaded with as many hydrogen atoms as the chain can carry. Unsaturated fat: a lipid, usually a solid fat such as butter, in which most of the carbon chains lack of the maximum load of hydrogen atoms. Monosaturated fatty acids (MUFAs): lipids whose fatty acid chains have just one kinked (unsaturated) region. Olive oils, canola oil, and cashew oil. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): lipids whose fatty acid chains have two or more kinked regions. Corn oil, safflower oil, and cottonseed oil.. Food manufactures sometimes alter the properties of oils by adding hydrogen atoms to liquid oils-  trans-fat contained in margarines, dairy products, and meats. Our cells cannot synthesize certain types of fatty acid and we need to get that from our diet: essential fatty acids. Omega-6 fatty acids: a polyunsaturated fatty acids that has double bonded carbons at two sites, including one at the sixth carbon along the chain. Canola oil, corn oil, sunflower oil Omega-3 fatty acids: a polyunsaturated fatty acids that has double bonded carbons at two sites, including one at the third carbon along the chain. Flaxseed oil, walnut oil.  Eating food rich in omega 3s lower the risks for heart diseases and Alzheimer’s disease, and help prevent inflammatory and autoimmune disease.  As your body breaks down the fats and oils in a food. It packages the lipids into particles called lipoproteins (lipid plus protein transport particles that can move along easily in the bloodstream, carry triglycerides or cholesterol) that can move along easily into the bloodstream. Cholesterol: a waxy lipid in the steroid class that is an important component of cell membrane and is transported in the blood by carriers called LDL and HDL.  Eating saturated and trans fat raise LDL: a form of lipoprotein sometimes called bad cholesterol, also contribute to plaque deposits inside blood vessels.  Eating saturated fat raise HDL to lesser degree, and eat unsaturated fat also raise HDL level to much greater degree.  Polyunsaturated fats rise HDL: a form of lipoprotein sometimes called bad cholesterol, also prevent plaque deposits inside blood vessels. A healthy fat diet Always read food labels, looking at the amount of saturate fat Don’t be fool into thinking that cookies, crackers or chips are healthy food because they are label as “low fat” Choose oils that contain mono and polyunsaturated fats for cooking needs Avoid fatty meats such as bacon, sausage, hot dogs, bologna, and pepperoni. Remove skin, and avoid frying. Add green leafs vegetables, walnut, and walnut oils into your diet. Choose dairy products that have 0 to 1 percent fat. Eat at least five serving of fruits and vegetables Vitamins are organic compounds that we need in tiny amounts to promote growth and help maintain life and health. Water soluble vitamins including vitamin C and B vitamins, dissolve easily in water and can be absorbed directly into the bloodstream. Excess water soluble vitamins are usually excreted in the urine and cause few toxicity problems. Fat soluble vitamins, including vitamins A, D, E, K, must associate with fat molecules in order to be absorb through the intestinal tract. Excess unused quantities of the fat soluble vitamins tend to be stored in the body, high level can accumulate in the liver and cause the damage.  Taking high levels of vitamin can lead to a condition known as hypervitaminosis  The micronutrients called minerals allow our nerves to transmit impulse, heartbeat, oxygen delivery, and absorption of vitamins. Major minerals: elements needed in relatively large amounts, including sodium, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, potassium, and chloride. Trace minerals: elements tho body need in very tiny amount, include irons, zinc, copper, fluoride, selenium, and chromium. Sodium: regulating water content of blood and body fluids; for the transmission of nerve impulses, for muscle contraction, and several metabolic functions inside the cell. However, most of us consume much more than we need. Recommended amount: 2400mg. A connection between excessive sodium intake and hypertension.  High sodium intake increase calcium lost in the urine. Most Americans consumed less than the recommend amount (1.0 g) by 1000 to 1,300 mg. Calcium is crucial for for the development and maintenance of bones and teeth, blood clotting, muscle contraction, nerve transmission, and fluid balance between the cell’s interior and its environment. Low intake of calcium  osteoporosis. Vitamin D and sunlight shining can improve calcium absorption.  Iron produce healthy blood, for muscle function, and for normal cell division. Women need about 18 mg per day, and men need about 8 mg per day. Iron deficiency anemia in which the body fails to produce enough of the red hemoglobin pigment in the blood, leading to unusually low oxygen levels and unsually high carbon dioxide level and resulting in mental and physical fatigue.  Iron deficiency can lead to poor immune system functioning, and propriety toward some cancers. Acute iron toxicity due to ingesting too many iron tablets remain the leading cause of accidental poisoning in children.  Water help maintain a proper balance of salt within our blood and tissues, help maintain pH balance, and help facilitate the transport of substances throughout the body. Without water, you would become dehydrated= depleted of normal, necessary level of body functioning. How can I achieve a balance diet? Set guidelines for minimum and recommend levels of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals Required Standardized nutrition labels on most packaged and processed foods Determined appropriate portion sizes Regulate the safety food supplies Publish an interactive website to help individuals to manage their daily nutrition Follow guidelines for good nutrition: Balance calories to maintain weight Increase certain foods and nutrients in your diet (eat more vegetable and fruits, whole grain) Decrease consumption of certain food and components Build healthy eating patterns DRI (Dietary Reference Intake) is a listing of 26 nutrients essential to maintaining health, including recommended amount and maximum safe intake levels of the nutrients for healthy people and minimum levels needed to prevent deficiencies and disease. RDAs (Recommended Dietary Allowance): A listing of average daily nutrient intake level for a list of vitamins and minerals that meets most people’s daily needs. RDIs ( Reference Daily Intakes): A listing of needed daily nutrients based on the RDAs. The National Academy of Sciences introduced RDAs in 1941 and update the list periodically. DRV (Daily Reference Value): Set of general intake guidelines of total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, carbohydrates, protein, fiber, sodium, and potassium. DVs (Daily Values): A listing of all the important nutrients from two less- inclusive government list- the RDIs and DRVs. o Reading food label (statement of identity, net contain of package, ingredient list, information on food manufacturer, packer or distributer). o Determining your calories need: body size, MR, and energy expenditure through physical activity determine your calories need o Understanding portion size: learn about standard portion sizes so you can avoid oversize portions. o Using food guides: my plate portion Acquire skills to improve nutrition 1. Keeping a food dairy 2. Using diet analysis software such as to keep track of what you eat, analyzing its number content, and making needed changes. 3. Adopt the whole foods habit Whole foods: dietary items produced and consumed with the minimum of processing ( refining, adding preservatives, or altering form of quick preparation) Nutrient Dense Foods: provide a high level of nutrients and thus maximize the nutritional value of each meal and snack consumed. They provide rich source of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, fiber, and minimize saturated fat, added sugars, and refined carbohydrates. High volume, low-calories foods: the primary reason that we eat is satiety: a feeling of fullness and the physical and emotional pleasure it brings. Food with high contents of water, fiber, or protein tend to keep you full and satisfied longer. Higher fiber to keep you full longer, and improve the passage of digested materials through the digestive tract. Antioxidant rich food; antioxidants produce enzymes that scavenge free radicals, slow their formation, and actually repair oxidative oxidative stress damage. Food contain folate- a form of vitamin B that is vital for spinal cord development and helps break down homocysteine as the body digest protein. Can found in dark leafy green, bean sprouts, cooked beans, asparagus. Do I need special nutrition for exercise?  Most exercisers can follow general nutritional guidelines: emphasize food first ( rather than taking supplements). Carbohydrates are the best sources of energy before and during exercise. Protein: for moderate strengthening and endurance exercise, most of us need about 0.75 g to 0.8g of protein per kg of body weight.  Elite athletes have extra nutritional needs: more calories (higher percentage of carbohydrates). Athletes need more water and carbs during the event. Taking protein and complex and simple carbs after the event, taking recommended minerals and vitamins. Meal timing Do I have special nutrition needs?  Vegetarian must monitor their nutrient intake because vegetarian diets can have deficiencies with careful food choices, especially strict vegetarians. Vegetarians can stay healthy by eating wide variety of grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and seeds each day.  Those with diabetes must reduce carbohydrates Good food safety practices are for everyone Be aware of cleanliness in stores and restaurants. When purchasing food, be aware of the expiration dates. Use proper at-home techniques for storing and handling food How can I create a behavior change plain for nutrition? Asses your current diet 1. Recoding what you eat 2. Identifying your patterns for food preference and eating habits ( peer pressure, or eat out of boredom or relieve stress). Review your behavior change skills 1. Look at your motivation: Do you really want a better or different diet? 2. Identify barriers to your diet 3. Make a commitment to learn about better nutrition 4. Choose a target behavior by identifying your biggest nutritional concerns 5. Note where you stand in the typical stage of change? 6. Have you noticed any helpful role models? Get set to apply nutritional skills Create a nutritional plan


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