PS111 Notes Chapter 2, Chapter 4
PS111 Notes Chapter 2, Chapter 4 PS 111
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ellen Hartley on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PS 111 at University of Oregon taught by Craig Alexander Parsons in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Intro to Political Science in Political Science at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
Chapter 2 Plato- Inventor of political philosophy “Politikos” means “pertaining to the city” The Republic – city government organization City has a soul: Reason truth philosophers Spirit honor warrior class Appetite lust masses Philosopher-Kings Simple lives, no private property, share wives and children so they don’t favor their own families. Plato: Universal education Abolition of slavery No discrimination Aristotle – Plato’s student His ideal was that individuals should be more equally virtuous and more equally involved. The rich should have more influence but not all the power. A mix of aristocracy and polity (as seen below). Came up with rational, institutional and ideational Believed ideational basis was the “final cause” Also believed in a psychological basis for politics Genuine: interests of all Perverted: interests of one Kingship: rule by a benevolent person Aristocracy: rule by a virtuous minority Polity: rule by representatives of all parts of society Tyranny: rule by a bad king Ogliarchy: rule by a selfish minority Democracy: undesirable rule by the poor masses Confucius Chinese philosopher Virtue, study, contemplation Virtuous emperor leader could lose the “Mandate of Heaven” (be overthrown) Kautilya From India Reversed relationship between normative and analytic arguments Harsh world- leader must prioritize holding onto power first Which realistic options are most virtuous? Explanatory political science Renaissance Machiavelli 1500s, leader in Italy Republic (choice rather than inherited) in Florence Taken over by the Medici family Wrote The Prince to win over Medici princes Saw politics as an unstable arena where leaders should be strong and feared Enlightenment Hobbes Absolutism – war against all Realist Central authority serves interests of population Strong government for national security Leviathan – English Civil War Social contract – domestic policies and international relations Locke Liberal Social contract – limited government Right to life, liberty and property Inspired American Revolution Competing interests and scarce resources Rousseau Marxist Humans are naturally good Against unequal distribution of wealth “General will” bottom-up society redistribute private property Carol Pateman 1988 Wrote The Sexual Contract – politics based on a premised contract among men to keep their dominance Charles Mills 1997 Wrote The Racial Contract – issues concerning racism are buried Social Science in the 19 Century Classical Liberalism- Prioritize individual rights, private property and limited government – most influential in Europe. Rational-Material Thinking Liberal Variant: Adam Smith and The Wealth of Nations discussed sources of wealth. Free-market competition and the invisible hand Marxist Variant: Private property leads to inequality. Surplus Value: anyone who profited from selling goods besides the workers who made them must be paying workers less than what their work was worth and keeping the surplus. Capitalists: People who make money with money rather than labor. Problem shifted from land-owning aristocrats to business-owning bourgeois (who make money from owning and investing) Proletariat: working class – selling labor Democracy: False competition Realist Variant: Constant threat of international violence Realism: In International Relations, states’ position in international distribution of power No progress throughout history Institutional and Ideational Thinking Tocqueville- aristocratic French historian Wrote Democracy in America – how it succeeded here and failed in Europe Civil Society – organized separately from the state – vibrant with clubs, religion and art which empowered Americans Too much equality leads to politics being dominated by the ordinary common man Tyranny of the majority – discouraged excellence, lead to money and consumerism Emile Durkheim French academic Cultural norms are just as important as tangible things – “social facts” Max Weber German social scientist Culture impacts what people see as rational The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism Economic growth took off in Europe and not elsewhere because of the Protestant religion – motivation, hard work and saving money Authority: right to exercise power. Matters more than power itself. Power: ability to persuade, only need a simple set of capabilities No large organization can operate without authority. Emergence and Diversification of Political Science The subject of political science was slow to develop – a by-product of other topics like economics The United States was the country that started the term “political scientist” In 1903 the American Political Science Association was founded. The most influential early explanatory approach was the liberal-rational- material approach (LRM) Arthur Bentley: Came up with interest groups to advocate for shared interests. Modernization Theory: Liberal Rational Materialism (LRM): – sees human history as progress towards U.S. or British-style liberal democracy and capitalism. Marxist Rational Materialism (MRM): dependency theory – sees all history in terms of dominance of poor countries by rich countries. (They’re poor because we’re rich). Realist Rational Materialism (RRM): Hans Morgenthau – refers to the Cold War and states that the U.S. and U.S.S.R. would realistically and naturally see each other as rivals because both countries are well off. Kenneth Waltz: Neo-realist theory States respond to raw distribution of power Institutionalism: Human-made obstacle courses Successful countries like Taiwan and South Korea caught up because of institutional arrangements that encouraged growth. Unintended Consequences: Institutions created for one purpose may channel later politics in unforeseen ways. Rational Choice Theory: Imagining how perfectly-rational people would act and interact within material or institutional constraints. Seen as a method. Psychology Constructivism: A version of ideational explanation suggesting that the international arena is shaped primarily by what people believe about international politics. Wendt: International chaos is not natural Philip Converse: Americans do not have any coherent political beliefs at all. Clear trends over time were used to refute this belief. Twins can inherit traits to be liberal or conservative. “small group psychology” groupthink among leaders Chapter 4 4.2 Unitary and Federal States Unitary States: Political centralization - only central government has distinct authority. Allows for branch offices. (ex: U.K. and Japan). Federal States: Both central government and lower levels of government have authority. Politically decentralized. (ex: Switzerland, to give different- language-speaking regions more autonomy, as well as the U.S. for the thirteen different colonies to have autonomy). Devolution: decentralization of powers. Britain underwent a devolution in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Citizenship: Inheritance or Residency? Citizenship: legal membership jus sanguinis: lit., “right of blood” citizens by blood, inheritance Naturalization: change of citizenship – recently in Germany jus soli: lit., “right of soil” you were a citizen if you were born in that country regardless of your ancestry. Applied in U.S., Canada, Australia New Zealand, Britain and France. In U.S. history, there has been a mix between inclusion and exclusion. It was seen as a melting pot for a time, but there was also the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882, and the civil rights movement in the 1950s and 1960s. Samuel Huntington: wrote Who Are We? The Challenges to America’s National Identity about how our nation is being “divided” by immigrants and how we should base citizenship more on heredity. Failed States Poor resources and clashing identities Political authority is absent Ex: Afghanistan, contains clans, one of the poorest countries in the world “State-First” Nation State: In war early on, consciously building identity Citizenship by soil (birth within the country) Ex: France, U.K. “Nation-First” Nation State: Established identity through language/religion Citizenship by blood (ancestors/family must be from there) Strong nationalism Can be unitary or federal Ex: Germany, Italy, Japan “Fragmented” Nation State: Unestablished identity at first but come together for security or economic gain Citizenship by soil (birth within the country) Ex: U.S., Canada, Nigeria “Failed” State: Poverty/post-colonialism 4.3 Globalization: The spread back and forth of goods, service, money, people and ideas past state boundaries. Communication takes power away from the states, power to corporations and large organizations. Human rights: Rights that all people are born with that cannot be ignored by authority in any state. International Law: General rules that must be accepted by all states. Geneva Convention of 1949 – international law pertaining to warfare International Organizations pose direct external pressures, formed by negotiated deals among states. (ex: UN, WTO, EU- most powerful) 4.4 Stability from the State Fascism sees the state as a source of all good Modern conservatives see the state as an entity driven to provide security, law and order Conservatives believe that progress is risky because things can go wrong. Conservatives don’t believe that good comes out of interfering with international affairs “Neocons” favor aggressive action around the world Neocons promote liberal democracy Rights and Representation Modern conservatives see state authority as protection individual rights. So do modern liberals^ Modern liberals question how much we should defend sovereignty State does not need to focus so much on security and national identity. Oppression and Exclusion Modern liberals: an active government can improve its own society, so actively combat nondemocratic regimes. Take the risk to make progress in the world. Modern conservatives: sovereignty is imperfect but necessary, and should not take such risks. Modern liberals: moderate immigration (similar to moderate socialists) Socialists/Marxists: Presence of states divides the working class and exploits. Communists: workers should revolt. Environmentalists: sovereignty should not be strong enough to allow environmental issues to be overshadowed or ignored. Radical Islamists: sovereignty should switch focus to religion. 4.5 – Afghanistan “Within-Case” Processes Who supports state unity? Rational-Material: economic elites living in cities who seek stability/development Institutional: Administrative elites in central government Ideational: Pashtun tribes Who is the obstacle to state unity? Rational-Material: Poor and uneducated Institutional: organized tribes Ideational: other ethnic groups What is the dynamic of conflict? Rational-Material: center fails due to lack of resources Institutional: central government vs. other groups for control Ideational: ethnic or religious When do we see unity/fragmentation? Rational-Material: center gain/loses resources Institutional: center defeats competitors or forms allies Ideational: moderates form coalitions, control by a single group Evidence?? Rational-Material: new central policies lead to problems like poverty and environmental destruction Institutional: center loses control and is weak when smaller local forces become stronger Ideational: tribal loyalties trump all
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