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Geography Week 9 Notes

by: Lilli Ames

Geography Week 9 Notes GR 1123

Lilli Ames
GPA 4.0

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About this Document

Notes over Sub-Saharan Africa
Intro World Geography
Sarah Radencic
Class Notes
geography, Africa
25 ?




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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lilli Ames on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GR 1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Sarah Radencic in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Intro World Geography in Geography at Mississippi State University.


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Date Created: 10/12/16
Monday, October 10, 2016 Intro to World Geography Week 9 Notes - SUB-SAHARAAFRICA • Africa resides in all 4 hemispheres • 2nd biggest continent • Lowest in life expectancy (58 years) • Mostly rural (only 39% of population lives in urban areas) • Majority of African countries depend on farming (60%) • Most people are along the equator of Africa • Farmers have many issues in Africa due to: - Climate variations (changing ITCZ) • Intertropical Convergence Zone - Narrow zone near the equator where northern and southern air masses converge, typically producing low atmospheric pressure - Unstable economic policies • Geography: - Contains 20% of the Earth’s land - Spatial dimensions • 4800 miles from Tunisia to South Africa (N-S) • 4500 miles from Senegal to Somalia (E-W) - Has a Great Lakes system like North America The Rift Valley • - Major Lakes: • Lake Victoria (Largest) • Lake Albert 1 Monday, October 10, 2016 • Lake Turkana • Lake Tanganyika (longest (N-S) • Lake Nyasa - Pangea • Africa was at the center • Biodiversity - Rift Valley • African Rift Valley is formed by plate separation - Divergent plate boundary - Africa’s greatest lakes are in the Rift Valley - 3 major rivers in Africa • Nile River - World’s longest river (4,260 miles long) - Flows South to North - Supports most the population • Congo River - Formerly known as the Zaire River - World’s deepest river (720 ft deep) - Flows to the northwest and then southwest - Drains the rainforest • Niger River - Flows north and then south - Headwater is only 150 miles from the Atlantic but it flows towards the desert • African population is very diverse, spread out, and located around water • The fertile land was taken over by Europeans during colonialism 2 Monday, October 10, 2016 - Eventually over time some land was passed down and taken over by private owners and families • Even after African states became independent from Europe, Europeans were/still are in control - Neocolonial land-management is still in place (keeps Africa poor) • Growing population in Africa has caused land overuse and soil issues - No crop rotation, few sustainable crops - Led to mass starvation in several regions • Top crops in Africa: - Corn - Millet - Sorghum - Yams - Sugar cane - Tea Women mostly do the farming in Africa (75%) • • Colonial Africa: - Europeans began settling Africa in the early 1400s • Europe changed the landscape (the same as in the Americas) • Began on the coast, eventually moved inland - At first there was trade with the Africans (ex. slavery), but eventually took over • Natural resources - Gold, diamonds, spices, ivory - Most lands were acquired by the British and French - Eventually led to slave trade 3 Monday, October 10, 2016 - Colonial Policies: • Different powers followed different policies • Great Britain: - “Indirect rule” (Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Zimbabwe) • Indigenous power structures were left intact to some degree • Local rulers were made representatives of the crown France: • - “Assimilationist” (Senegal, Mali, Ivory Coast) • Enforced a direct rule which propagated the French culture through language, laws, education, and dress (acculturation) Portugal: • - “Exploitation” (Guinea-Bissau, Angola, Mozambique) • First to enslave and colonize and one of the last to grant independence • Maintained rigid control; natural resources oriented - Decolonization: • New governments were put into place with the departure of the colonial powers (1950s-1970s) - Problems: • Ethnic tensions - Boundaries were arbitrary; lots of cultural/ethnic overlap • Possibility of re-drawing boundaries was minimal - Governments typically don't wish to give up territory • One-party states: - Prevalent in post-colonial Africa - Dictatorships - Repression of minorities (sometimes Genocide; Uganda, Rwanda) 4 Monday, October 10, 2016 • Uganda - President Idi Amin Dada • “Claimed” numerous military honors, doctoral degree, etc. • Regime characterized by ethnic genocide, corruption, etc. - Killed between 100-500K • Overthrown and given exile South Africa • - South Africa was ruled by an apartheid system in which segregation was enforced on grounds of race • Population was segregated by: white, black, Indian, colored Apartheid was the National Party in power from 1948-1994 • - First Democratic election was in 1991, but apartheid politics lasted another 3 years - 1994: Election of Nelson Mandela • The African Union (AU) - Established in 2001 - Contains 54 of the 55 states • Morocco is not included - No central currency - Goals: • Stabilize the continent economically, politically, militarily, and enhance infrastructure • Promote international cooperation • Eradicate poverty and disease • Improve education, human rights, and standards of living 5 Monday, October 10, 2016 • Urbanization in Africa - Africa is the least urbanized realm in the world - Most countries lack political and economic infrastructure • Urban areas don't have the draw like in cities in more developed countries (such as jobs, social amenities, etc.) • Regions in Sub-Saharan Africa - South Africa • Majority of Wildlife Reservations • Large population with HIV/AIDS - East Arica - Equatorial Africa • Mostly rainforest - West Africa - The African Transition Zone • Area between Saharan and Sub-Saharan Africa • Malawi - 16.3 million people • Independence from Britain in 1964 • Has a woman president (Joyce Banda) - Nearly entirely agriculture based economy • 40% of the economy is based on tobacco - Also sugarcane, coffee, and tea Has a large water supply and has helped with it being landlocked • - Infrastructure is well developed • 31 airports, > 500 miles of railroads, and 15,500 miles of roadways • Almost 4 million cell phone users to just 17,000 land-lines 6 Monday, October 10, 2016 • Huge country for internet hosting • Kenya - 42.2 million people • Capitol is Nairobi • Mombasa is East Africa’s busiest port - Capitalistic economy Dependent on agriculture: tea, coffee, and flowers • - Issues in the 1980s, 1990s, and event today • Fastest growing population • Floods and droughts • AIDS • Terrorism • Corruption by government officials • Tanzania - 48 million people • The biggest in area and in population in Eastern Africa • Tends to be congregated along the coast and the boarders - Contains Mt. Kilimanjaro, Serengeti National Park, and Zanzibar Island • The country is known for its huge terrorism sector (but at the same time very poor population) - Attempted a socialistic economy after independence from the UK in 1961 • Tried to institute collective farming, but it failed and tourism suffered 1990s it became Democratic • • Ethiopia - 91 million people • Founded around 980 BC 7 Monday, October 10, 2016 • Mostly farmers - Considered the birthplace of man-kind • Most flags in Africa are based upon Ethiopia because of this fact - Growing economy due to selling public lands to the private sector - 8


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