Memory Notes from 10/3/16 and 10/5/16
Memory Notes from 10/3/16 and 10/5/16 PSYCH 1101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chandler Notetaker on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1101 at Cornell University taught by Pizarro, D in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychology at Cornell University.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
10/3/16 ● Sensory Memory- Short Term Memory ○ Information that we attend to in sensory memory passes into short term memory ○ Long term memory seems to have no limit, but short term memory has a limited storage capacity ● Learning is changing the information you have because things that occur to you from the environment and presented to you when necessary ● We Don't Attend to Most Things ● Change blindness- is a perceptual phenomenon that occurs when a change in a visual stimulus is introduced and the observer does not notice it. ❖ Limited Storage Capacity: The “Magic Number” ➢ Short term memory is constrained ➢ Chunks of Information- ➢ Miller 1956- People are constrained in the same way (people can remember from 5 and up to 9 chunks of information) ➢ Attention is a powerful filter ❖ Stages of Memory ➢ Sensory Memory “buffer” ➢ Short term memory (like RAM); can also be said as working memory ➢ Long term memory (kind of permanent storage) ■ Achieved through Rehearsal ■ Serial position effect- tendency of a person to recall the first and last items in a series best, and the middle items worst. ● Primacy: rehearsal of the first words ● Recency: Working Memory ❖ How to Get Something into Long Term Memory ➢ Mnemonic Strategies ➢ Rhymes ➢ Acronyms ➢ Method of Loci (associating items with physical locations) ➢ Episodic (What happens) ➢ Semantic (facts) ➢ Depth-Of-Processing: ➢ Deep (semantic) processing lead to better memory than shallow: Taking into account the meaning to other existing knowledge ❖ Visual<Acoustic<Semantic encoding (by increasing of words recalled) ❖ Information Stored in Associative Networks ➢ Activating one node increases the likelihood that closely associated nodes will also be activated ➢ Closer the nodes, the stronger the association ➢ An item's characteristics and associates are linked to it ❖ 10/5/16 ● Memory ○ Information Stored in Associative Networks ■ Activating one node increases the likelihood that closely associated nodes will also be activated ■ Closer the nodes, the stronger the association ■ An item's characteristics and associates are linked to it ○ Activation of concepts as you learn a new concept causes a connection. ■ Easier to recall things when you have a set of cues in the same area ● Context Dependent Memory ■ Godden & Baddeley (1975) ■ Cues are being learned at the same time as the new info coming in ■ Memorizing a list of words ● underwater (20 ft below surface) with scuba gear on ● or they learned the words on land ● 24 hours later: given a memory recall test underwater and on land (wet and dry conditions) ● Based on the conditions in which you learned the words, you would better recall it in the same environment ● Context Aid Memory ○ Physical Location ■ Studying in the same room the exam is taken ○ Physiological context ○ Mood dependent effects ○ State dependent memory ( your internal mood is also seen as cue and do not have to be relevant in what you are learning) ● Context can be used as a Memory Aid ● Why Memory Can't be Trusted ○ Deese-Roediger-Mcderbot Experimental Paradigm ● Memory is Malleable ○ Loftus and Palmer (1974) ○ Showed participants a videotape of a car accident and asked participants questions about speed, but manipulated the way it was asked ○ “How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?” v “How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?” ■ In video: The word smashed yielded a higher speed than when saying hit ■ When you feed people false infom, you can distort and contaminate their memory ● Changes in the law about how to ask questions that implant false information in witnesses ○ Memory is tainted with when people try to fit new information in with the events that have already happened. ● Our attention narrows on a weapon focus- causes us not to focus on the face ● “Lost in the Mall” Paradigm ● Aren’t They “Special” memories ○ William James (1890) ■ An impression can be so exciting emotionally as to leave a scar about cerebral tissue ● Flashbulb Memories ○ Asked individuals to report highly emotional events (80 total) ○ People reported having vivid and detailed memories of surprising and important events ● The things they typically remember: ○ Where they were ○ What was going on at the time ○ Who told them the news ○ How others felt ○ How they felt ○ What happened next ● Problem: did not assess the accuracy of these memories ● When you look, memories are horribly flawed ● PTSD: the brain is not able to suppress memories of emotions so patients continue to leave ● Cold Press Experiment: Putting hand in a bucket of ice water
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