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Week 8 Class Notes

by: Alexandra Notetaker

Week 8 Class Notes Biol 3244

Alexandra Notetaker
CU Denver
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

These notes cover material needed to know from chapters 16, 17 and 18.
Human Anatomy
Dr. Hannah Anchordoquy
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Notetaker on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 3244 at University of Colorado Denver taught by Dr. Hannah Anchordoquy in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Biology at University of Colorado Denver.

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Date Created: 10/12/16
Anatomy Lecture Notes 10/10 Functions of the frontal lobe include: Speech centers Somatic motor association center True or False? 1. The spinothalamic tract carries proprioceptive info from the inferior ½ of the body to the brain FALSE 2. The pyramidal tract is the reticulospinal tract FALSE- it's an extrapyramidal tract 3. The posterior column pathways cross at the level of entry of the 1st order neurons into the spinal cord FALSE 4. The spinocerebellar tracts is a motor pathway FALSE- because it’s afferent Which statement is true? The cell bodies for the first order afferent spinal neurons is in the dorsal root ganglia Decussation of the posterior column and spinothalamic tracts occurs in the: Second order neurons Peripheral Nervous System Cranial Nerves CN origins/terminations:  Cerebrum: I  Diencephalon: II  Mesencephalon: III, IV  Pons: V-VIII  Medulla: IX-XII I. Olfactory II. Optic -with a high powered lens, the image is inverted (R projects to L side of eye and vice versa) Left half of visual field projects to the R half of retina Pituitary adenoma: noncancerous/benign tumor in the pituitary gland; pituitary gland enlarges, sella turcica also enlarges and will compress the optic chiasm and will knock out the medial crossing fibers on each side which serve the medial half of each eye. This knocks out the lateral visual field of each eye III. Oculomotor A. Point of origin: mesencephalon B. Destination: 1. Somatic motor 2. Autonomic 3. van de Graaf adds sensory C. Primary function—eye motor movements *purely motor NOT sensory III— innervates all the rest of ocular eye muscles IV—trochlear nerve; innervates superior oblique muscle VI—LR6; abducens nerve; small motor nerve that innervates lateral rectus muscle (turns out/abducts each eye) VI. Abducens A. Point of origin: pons B. Destination: 1. Lateral rectus muscle C. Primary Function—abducts the eye Crossed eyes occurs when there’s paralysis in the abducens nerve V. Trigeminal -3 branches Mnemonic: Standing Room Only Superior orbital fissure is V1 Foramen Rotundum is V2 Foramen Ovale is V3 A. Sensory: cell bodies are located in the semilunar or trigeminal ganglion 1. Opthalmic branch 2. Maxillary branch 3. Mandibular B. Destination—sensory of all branches—to sensory nuclei in pons VII. Facial -primarily motor functions -5 or 6 major branches of nerves A. Sensory: cell bodies located in the geniculate ganglion 1. Point of origin—taste receptors on anterior 2/3 of tongue 2. Destination—sensory nuclei of pons B. Motor 1. Somatic motor B. Visceral motor C. Primary function: sensory from tongue, motor to muscles of facial expression, autonomic motor function to tear, nasal and salivary glands VIII. Vestibulocochlear A. Sensory 1. Cochlear nerve 2. Vestibular nerve B. Destination: axons pass on to the vestibular and cochlear nuclei of the pons and medulla C. Primary function—special sensory associated with hearing and balance IX. Glossopharyngeal A. Sensory: arise from posterior 1/3 of tongue, pharynx, palate, and carotid sinus receptors, with sensory neurons in the superior and inferior ganglia. They travel on to the medulla. B. Motor 1. Somatic 2. Autonomic C. Primary function—sensory from tongue, palate, and carotid arteries; somatic innervation for swallowing and visceral innervation to the parotid gland X. Vagus -2 nerves collaborate -at the level of the thorax, only have 1 vagus nerve A Sensory: from part of pharynx, pinna of ear, external auditory canal, diaphragm, and visceral organs in the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities. Sensory neurons are located in the jugular ganglion and the nodose ganglion and synapse in the medulla. B. Motor: 1. Somatic motor: muscles of pharynx for swallowing and larynx for vocalization 2. Autonomic: motor impulses from medulla proceed to visceral organs muscles as far as the distal colon. C. Primary function—mixed *why you do the Heimlich and not touch someone’s trachea when they are choking XI. Accessory -pick up bulbar root nerves and use those to innervate the skeletal muscles of the soft palate, pharynx and larynx -pick up spinal root nerves and use those to innervate the trapezius muscles and sternocleidomastoid XII. Hypoglossal -Primary function—motor tongue movements Peripheral Nerves I. Spinal Nerves Roots to Rami: 31 pairs of spinal nerves Dorsal roots—carries only sensory info. B. Spinal nerve branches 1. Dorsal/posterior ramus: both sensory and motor 2. Ventral/anterior ramus: much larger than dorsal ramus because it has a lot more to innervate 3. Meningeal ramus: innervates the meninges, vertebrae and vertebral ligaments 4. Rami communicantes: communicating branches 10/12 Quiz The dorsal rami of the spinal nerves: Carry both sensory and motor information You obtain the following visual field. Medial and nasal parts are in great condition. Lateral and temporal parts are almost completely gone. Bilateral loss of visual fields. This is most suggestive of: a pituitary lesion affecting the chiasm Rami communicantes: are 2 branches from each spinal nerve that connect to a sympathetic trunk ganglion, which is part of the ANS. a) White ramus has myelinated fibers; are preganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers b) Gray ramus has unmyelinated fibers; are postganglionic sympathetic nerve fibers Spinal Nerves C. Plexuses -except in T2-T12, the ventral rami of adjacent spinal nerves combine and then split again as networks of nerve fibers referred to as nerve plexuses -nerve roots “carpool” together 1. Cervical plexus: most superior; extends into the thoracic muscles that innervate the diaphragm 2. Brachial plexus: larger and more complex; most posterior The cords form 5 major terminal nerves (branches) Medical mnemonic: Real Texans Drink Coors Beer. Read The Damn Cadaver Book 3. Lumbar plexus: more simple; Femoral nerve: innervates anterior portion of leg (quadriceps) Obturator nerve: innervates abductor muscles (medial portion of thigh) and skin over medial though 4. Sacral: L and R sacral plexuses are formed from the anterior rami of spinal nerves L4-S4 and are located immediately inferior to the lumbar plexuses. Innervates the lower back, pelvis, perineum, posterior surface of the thigh and leg, dorsal and plantar surfaces of the foot Sciatic nerve: largest and longest nerve in the body Inferior gluteal nerve Tibial nerve Pudendal: innervates muscles of perineum and external genitalia; sensory impulses from the skin on external genitalia Autonomic Nervous System II. Comparing visceral motor output (ANS) to somatic motor output A. The ANS is regulated by the hypothalamus and brainstem B. Somatic lower motor neurons extend from the CNS and exert direct control over the effector C. Visceral or autonomic motor neurons are known as preganglionic neurons A. Sympathetic -Fight or Flight system -stimulates tissue metabolism, increases alertness and prepares body to deal with emergencies B. Parasympathetic -promotes sedentary activities -Rest and Repose -all preganglionic fibers originate in the brainstem or sacral part of the spinal cord IV. Sympathetic Division -white ramus communicantes only located between T1-L2 A. Preganglionic neurons of the Sympathetic Nervous System B. Ganglion neurons of the SNS -sympathetic response causes whole body to react, not specific areas C. Ganglia of the SNS -all sympathetic preganglionic fibers enter the sympathetic chain ganglia *white rami communicantes: T1-L2 segments have it *gray rami communicantes: all body segments have it In abdomen only: 3 sets of collateral ganglia -Greater splanchnic nerve -Lesser splanchnic nerve -Lumbar splanchnic nerve


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