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Life Science Week 8

by: Jennica Prophete

Life Science Week 8 BSC 1005

Jennica Prophete
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About this Document

These notes cover DNA as it was discussed in class
Lab-BIOL 1005-010
Diane Lowell
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennica Prophete on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 1005 at Florida Atlantic University taught by Diane Lowell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views.


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Date Created: 10/12/16
The Central Dogma of Life Light overview: ● All of your genetic instruction is in your DNA  ● DNA is converted into RNA and the RNA then is converted into  proteins  What's DNA??? ● Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) ○ Passed onto offspring ○ Common to all living organisms  ○ Serves as instructions for living organisms  ● DNA ○ Found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells ○ In the form of a chromosome  ■ 1 chromosomes = a single DNA molecule ● Human DNA ○ Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes  ○ 1 pair comes from your mom; 1 pair comes from your dad ○ Each person's DNA is different (except for identical twins) ○ Specific sequence of nucleotides along a strand of DNA is unique  to each individual  ● Structure of DNA ○ DNA is composed of nucleotides ■ Nucleotides = sugar + phosphate + base ○ Nucleotides include: ■ Adenine  ■ Thymine ■ Guanine  ■ Cytosine  ○ Two strands of DNA double helix is held by base pairing  (hydrogen bonding) between the bases of each strand  ○ Base pairing rules  ■ A always pairs with T ■ G always pairs with C ● DNA replication  ○ This is the natural process by which cells make an identical copy  of a DNA molecule ○ Hydrogen bonds that hold base lies are broken and the helix is  unwound ○ DNA polymerase reads the DNA and adds complementary  nucleotides using the rules of base pairing  ■ DNA polymerase is an enzyme  ○ DNA replicates in S phase of interphase ○ Semi­conservative mechanism ■ Says that two copies of the original DNA are  produced ■ Each molecule consists of an old DNA strand and a new DNA strand ● The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ○ This does not occur naturally  ○ Lab technique used to replicate & amplify specific DNA segment ■ Created in 1983 by Kary Mullis  ○ Primers: short pieces of DNA that guide DNA polymerase to the  section of DNA to copy ○ There are 3 steps in PCR ■ Step 1: heat to separate DNA strand  ■ Step 2: cool to attach primers  ■ Step 3: replicate the DNA  ■ Repeat 30x ■ You'll end up with a billion pieces of DNA  ○ Replicates DNA many times ○ “Mini photocopier” ● DNA profiling  ○ No two people have the same DNA (except for twins) ○ DNA is extracted from cells to create an individual's DNA profile  ■ Visual representation of a person’s DNA sequence ■ Many copies of DNA are needed ○ Genome = one complete set of genetic instructions encoded in  the DNA of an organism ○ Determining sequence of entire genome is extreme time  consuming and expensive ○ Shortcut ■ Use PCR to amplify only specific DNA regions  called short tandem repeats (STR) ● DNA profiling using STRs ○ STRs = sections of a chromosome where DNA sequences  repeated ■ E.g. Sequence AGCT repeated over and over ○ STRs are in the same place ok everyone's chromosomes  ○ Exact length of STR varies from person to person  ○ DNA profiling looks at multiple STRs  Questions 1. What is DNA? a. A molecule that is passed down to the children from the father but  not the mother b. A molecule found only in blood c. A molecule common to all life forms d. A molecule found only in mammals e. A molecule made of a single strand of nucleotides  2. Which of the following statements is false? a. Human DNA is a unique combination of DNA inherited from both  parents  b. Human males receive one X chromosome from their mother c. Humans females receive two X chromosomes from their mother d. Humans have 22 pairs of chromosomes and two sex  chromosomes e. Human DNA is located within the nucleus  3. Bases holding two single strands of DNA together into a double strand of  DNA interact through ___ bonds. a. Covalent  b. Hydrogen c. Ionic d. Chemical e. Carbon 


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