HiST 143, Section 1
HiST 143, Section 1 HIST 143
Popular in GE: United States History since 1877
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Lladoc on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 143 at East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania taught by Shannon L. Frystak in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see GE: United States History since 1877 in History at East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
Reconstructing America- the aftermath of the Civil War 1861 Abraham Lincoln became president -Did not want to expand slavery beyond the existing slave states -Southerners thought this was treason on Abe’s part -North Carolina started to succeed from the union -In time all 11 states succeeded from the Union Civil War began April 1861-Ends April 1865 st -Emancipation Proclamation January 1 1863: frees states in all confederate states Abe begins the presidential reconstruction, but then is assassinated -Andrew Johnson (vice president) becomes president -Was racist against blacks, but thought succeeding from union was unconstitutional -Thought bankers/plantation owners/wealthy etc. were to blame for the war Differences in reconstruction plans: Lincoln vs. Johnson Lincoln Johnson -All southerners pardoned -Agreed w/ Abe’s plans, but added after taking oath of alliance -Sothern states must th approve 13 to U.S. Amendment -States are permitted back into -States had to nullify their The Union when 10% of it’s voters ordinances of succession took oath of alliance -States had to cancel war debt & “beg” beg for forgiveness. Civil War reconstruction Amendments th 13 thBans slavery 14 - defines citizenship & grants equal protection 15 - gives citizens (men) right to vote, regardless of race/color/previous conditions Ex-Slaves: 4 million men/women/children released, largest transfer of property in U.S. history. Freeman’s Bureau: provides food, shelter, clothing, to ex-slaves -Helped them find homes -Taught to read and write Military Recthstruction: some southern states dragged their feet ratifying 15 amendment (allowing blacks to vote) so the government sent in military to occupy them until they ratified. Southern response to Congressional reconstruction: Black Codes: restricts all rights of blacks Examples: limited occupations/cohabitation/marriage/travel The Compromise of 1877 1876 Hayes (north) & Tilton (south) Election -Almost 50/50 tie, but Hayes won but...with these conditions: -Had to withdrawal military troops from Southern states -Was only permitted 1 term -Must appoint Southern democrats to the cabinet The beginning of Jim Crow The New South Creed: brought industry to the south, cotton mills, create cities etc. Political: Mississippi Plan: the disfranchising of blacks Voting-instituted poll tax - literacy test - forbid voting if found guilty of: bribery, burglary, theft, arson, rape, perjury, murder, bigamy, drunkenness, etc. & Louisiana Grandfather Clause: if you couldn’t vote before 1870 (all blacks), you cannot vote. Social: 1896 Plessy vs. Ferguson- “Separate but equal” (not overturned until Brown vs. Board of Education) Booker T. Washington th -Lower class, born a slave, then liberated by the 13 amendment -Went to Hampton University -Was very well respected by whites and Roosevelt -Called, “The Great Compromiser” -Believed in accommodation NOT agitation -Went to Tuskegee, AL to build a vocational school for blacks to prove to whites they are capable, trustworthy, and hardworking. -1895 Atlanta Exposition: Booker T. spoke publically to attempt to keep blacks in the south, so they can show whites what they are really capable of, prove themselves. W.E.B Du Bois -Upper class from the north, lived alongside whites his whole life, with vest little racism -1 African American to get a PhD from Harvard University -Booker’s biggest critic -Did not agree with vocational schools, thought blacks should get better education -Part of original NAACP group -1909 Niagara Movement: A biracial movement/organization -Became the NAACP (National Association for Advancement of Colored People) 1. Enforcements for 14 th& 15 th amendments 2. Equal education for black/white children th 3. Complete Enfranchisement of blacks (15 amendment) th th Late 19 – Early 20 Century: American Turn of the Century Industry-immigration-cities-labor unions -In 40 years U.S. population doubled Summary: Industrialization-Hot, dirty, unsafe, 12+hr. work, 6+ days a week Immigration- Ellis Island Urbanization- cities expand because of factories-separate districts- pollution “The Gilded Age” $-BIG MONOPOLIES-$ STEEL: Andrew Carnegie- classic rags to riches story -U.S. first millionaire -Became president of the railroad, bought many bail bonds -Carnegie Steel STEEL: J.P. Morgan- came from money -Bought Carnegie Steel when he Andrew retired, became U.S. Steel OIL: John D. Rockefeller- from Cleveland came from money -Standard Oil -Owned company, oil refinery, transport train cars, transport railroads, spied on oil competitors CARS: Henry Ford 1880’s- Interstate Commerce Act- regulated railroads Sherman Anti-Trust Act- banned monopolies, promoted fair competition st -1 acts to attempt to end big industry control Unionization: attempts to regulate working life After Civil War, Farmer’s Union was formed by the Populist Party. Populist (people’s) Party formed... The Omaha Platform. Strived for: -8 hour workday, minimum wage/maximum hour, graduated income tax, increase money supply, postal savings bank, phones/telegraphs, ban Pinkertons (private police forces) 1869 Knights of Labor union -Deemed the “first national union” -Allowed membership to ANYONE -Formed by 9 tailors -Did not have success until 1877 -After recession of 1893 Knights of Labor lost strength 1877 The Great Railroad Strike -Began in West Virginia when they walked off the job, spread to Pittsburgh, then Maryland, all the way to San Francisco. -Were striking for 10% wage increase, better/safer work conditions, and better hours -Strike was unsuccessful, workers were fired, some were killed, and others left were forced to return to work *significance: popularized the idea of national unionization, and after the strike national unionization went up by 700% -in steel plants mostly 1881-AFL-American Federation of Labor -Still around today -More restrictive on who can join, exclusive -Umbrella group (steel, electricians, miners, etc.) -“Closed shop union” to work in particular factories, you must join union -Their platform: -Better wages, benefits, workers compensation, 8 hour work days, immigration restrictions in fear of them taking jobs 1900-ILGWU-International Ladies Garment Workers Union -Mainly on East Coast -Made up mostly in NYC of young, immigrant women working in factories *significance: 1911 Triangle Shirtwaist Fire Significant Strikes/Events/Court cases 1886-Haymarket Strike-Chicago -Harvesters, meat packers etc. (mostly immigrants) striking/marching -Known as MAY DAY, assembly to recognize labor unions -A policemen got shot, 9 union members arrested, 8 found guilty and were killed 1892 (Depression beginning)-Homestead Strike-Pennsylvania -5,000 workers wages suddenly drop at Carnegie Steel -Workers strike, pinkertons sent in to stop strike -Governor of PA called in state troops to occupy for 1 week to end strike -Carnegie breaks up this union 1894 (during Depression)-Pullman Strike -Workers built railroad carts, wages were significantly cut, but cost of living was not. -Pullman ran entire town, workers/citizens bought, rented, got water, paid all utilities to Pullman -A Supreme Court injunction said workers were “interfering with mail” and “monopolizing the economy” -National Troops sent in to end strike -After strike, many resented these strikers claiming they are “ungrateful” “be happy you even have a job” type attitude 1905-Wobblies-International Workers of the World -European, Italian members -Union not around very long -Believed bigger union=better union -Won strike during WWI, Italian, Polish, Irish, and African American dock workers. -Opens the idea that big unions are better unions 1908-Muller vs. Oregon -Muller (women) worked in a factory, very bad conditions -Supreme Court ruled women/children should get 10 hour work days -Ruling because women’s “biological and reproductive issues” -Some immigrant women upset with this because they wanted the hours and $ 1911- Triangle Shirtwaist Fire -146 died: worst tragedy in NY history until 9/11 -Doors were locked because of on and off union strikes -Hundreds trapped, jumped out of tall building to their death -In NY alone, 36 new labor laws were created -This spread to other urban areas and fire drills/factory inspections were created Immigrant Life in America: “the push-pull affect” -Pull: jobs in America, other family already there, better pay, and the “American Dream” -Push: out of Europe: famine, war, religious persecution etc. st -1 Western Europe, Great Britain, Germany etc. -Later, Italy, Russian, Polish, Slovak etc. -Most (50%) moved to urban areas 1892 to 1954- Ellis Island -Much corruption theft, lying at the many ports before this time -Bureau of Immigration bought this island -70% of immigrants came through via Ellis Island from 1892-1954 -5,000 people processed per day -12 million in total processed during operation -2-3 hours to check in, some quarantined, 2% sent back 1910- Angel Island -West Coast -Chinese Exclusion Act was already put into place -Big fear of China -30% of people evaluated were sent back Turn of the Century America -1/2 of Americans were living in urban areas = jobs/industry/opportunity Advancements/Ideas/Urban Life: -Elisha Otis invented the non-electric elevator in 1852 -1880 Skyscrapers are invented -Tenement buildings- primarily immigrants, and for the poor, crammed and dirty -Cable cars invented in 1970’s in San Francisco -Subways, first in Philadelphia -Allowed cities to expand outwards -The “el” elevated trains -Created daily transit routes & schedules based on factory shifts -Department Stores/Shopping Districts -From small stuffed mom and pop stores to elaborate designed stores -Macy’s, Marshall Field & Co., Wanamaker -Marketed to upper class white women, gender/class oriented -Financial Districts -For the white middle class male -Wall street, bars, business districts -NY Central Park -Designed by Fredrick Law Olmstead, an architect -Aim to create and preserve green space in cities -25,000 visitors per day before it’s even completed -Meant for upper-class whites, but crammed immigrants benefited -Vice/Red light District -Near immigrant/ethnic neighborhoods -Taverns, prostitutes, gambling -Varying laws- Ex: Saloons/taverns were men only Edge City = Suburbs -Submerging middle class began to move out of the city, to the outskirts of the city where there were less tenement buildings “How the Other Half Lives” by Jacob Riis -Worked with police writing about crime/violence -Focused on immigrants/minorities and violence -Dies in 1914 The Progressive Era: 1890-1920 -Decrease role of special interest groups in government -Make government more honest/efficient/responsive to needs