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PSY 205

by: Harman Suri

PSY 205 PSY 205

Harman Suri

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Psychology : Foundations of Human Behaviour
M. Morton
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Harman Suri on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 205 at Syracuse University taught by M. Morton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 74 views. For similar materials see Psychology : Foundations of Human Behaviour in Psychology at Syracuse University.


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Date Created: 10/12/16
Chapter 6 Summary Positive reinforcement  ­ when a response is strengthened because it is followed by the presentation of a rewarding  stimulus. Negative Reinforcement ­ When a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an aversive stimulus. ­Escape : ‘an organism acquires a response that deceases or ends some aversive stimulation. ­Avoidance learning: ‘ an organism acquires  RESPONSE THAT PREVENTS SOME AVERSIVE  STIMULATION FROM OCCURRING. ­Social phobia: invited to a party, but do not go: Avoidance response Negative Reinforcement occurs when you do not attend the party Taking away your ‘conditional fear’ Prevention of lessening or extinguishing the fear Phobia conditioned response Punishment: occurs when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that  ­ response Positive punishment: Extra chores because you forgot to make your bed, spanking, listening to a  parents lecture after problematic behaviour Negative Punishment: Taking away halloween candy, taking away your phone, taking away  internet privileges  ­ Primary reinforcers : Satisfy biological needs ­ food, shelter ­ Secondary reinforcers: conditioned reinforcers ­ money, praise ­Reinforcement schedules  Continous reinforcements every instance of a response is reinforced Intermitted reinforcement responses are reinforced only some of the time Partial reinforcement generally takes longer to extinguish Ratios ­ Fixed: reinforcement occurs after a fixed number of responses Variable: reinforcement occurs after a variable number of responses Fixed Interval: reinforcement occurs after a fixed interval Variable Interval: reinforcement occurs after a variable amount of time Observational learning ­ Albert Bandura Found that conditioning may occur vicariously through observation Exg: You study and pass the test, your friend did not study and he failed.  4 key processes in observational learning  1. attention 2. retention 3. reproduction 4. motivation Acquisition vs Performance ­ a response CAN BE learned through observation, but the organism  has to be motivated enough to try the behaviour themselves.  Chapter 7 Memory ­ A group of related mental processes that enable us to acquire, retain and retrieve, info  for a variety of uses. The Nature of memory  Elizabeth Loftus ­ We don't replay/recall events Our memory is reconstructive ­ ­ False memory ­ A distorted or fabricated recollection of something that didn't occur Misinformation effect: Falsely reconstructing memories based off of faulty information. Real­world consequences ­ In 1986, Frank Smith was sentenced to death for the rape and murder of an 8 year old girl in  Florida. ­ No physical evidence; only eye witnesses testimony Investigators later discovered that a serial rapist­murderer lived in  the same area. ­ ­ When shown a photo of the new suspect, one of the original eyewitnesses said he­not Frank  Smith ­ definitely was the person she had seen. ­ Mr. Smith ’s attorneys sought DNA testing. ­ Smith died in 2000, before testing was approved Smith became the first death row prisoner to be posthumously exonerated by DNA ­ Real world consequences ­ Eyewitneses testimony is one of the most persuasive form of evidence presented in court, but in  many cases its not accurate. ­ Faulty eyewitness testimony has been implicated in at least 75% of DNA exoneration cases. Misinformation effects can occur easily, even without any intention to deceive ­ Important Factors Eyewitnesses identifiication errors more likely when:  poor vision during the crime ­ ­ stressful witnessing experiences ­ too little time to view the perpetrator ­ too much delay between witnessing and identifying ­ being asked to identify a perpetrator from a race other than ones own Basic memory processes ­ Encoding: forming a memory code ­ Storage: maintaining encoded information in memory over time ­ Retrieval: recovering information from memory stores Encoding ­ Attention: focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli Storage ­ Sensory memory ­ brief, original stimuli ­ Short­term memory ­10­20 seconds ( unless rehearsed) Long­term memory ­ remains indefinitely ­ Sensory memory: preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time ­ Auditory or Visual ­ Lasts approximately 1/4 seconds Short­term memory STM: A limited­capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed info. for about 10­20 seconds The Magic Number : 7 +/­ 2 ­Capacity to remember about 5 to 9 items Chunking: griuping small bits of information info larger units of information Expands working memory load Limited Duration: About 20 seconds without rehearsal  Rehearsal: The process of repetitively verbalising or thinking about the information. What words did you tend to remember? ­ Serial position effect: subjects show better recall for items at the beginning and end of a list than  for items in the middle ­ Primacy effect: tendency to remember items at the begening of a list Recency Effect: Tendancy to remember items at the end of a list.  ­ Long term memory ­ Long term money: an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of  time ­ Can store info. indefinitely May be permanent  ­ Flashbulb memory; unusually vivid and identified recollections of  momentous events. Stephen Wiltshere ­ He can fly over a major city and then redraw the city perfectly from memory. 


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