Psychology 102 notes for weeks 1-7
Psychology 102 notes for weeks 1-7 (PSY-102-TR300A)
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Whitney Hammond on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to (PSY-102-TR300A) at Grand Canyon University taught by Elizabeth Valenti in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Humanities and Social Sciences at Grand Canyon University.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
12 Psychology notes Blood vessels constrict when stressed and less blood and oxygen travel to brain Oxytocin= the cuddle hormone. Released when you hug someone Neuro hormone that fine tunes and strengthens close relationship. Enhances empathy and searches for physical contact Pituitary gland pumps oxytocin out because it is actually a stress hormone Your stress response wants you to be surrounded by people who care about you. Anti-inflammatory, oxytocin helps your heart maintain Mechanism for stress resilience is human connection Caring creates stress resilience. CREATE THE BIOLOGY OF COURAGE Wilhem Wundt is the father of psychology Neuroscience-Views behavior from the perspective Behaviorism=scientific Psychology should focus on observable behavior. Mental processes cannot be studied directly Freud and Psychoanalysis Proposes the idea of the unconscious Thoughts, memories and desires exist below conscious awareness Unconscious expressed in dreams and ‘slips of the tongue” Psychoanalytic theory Iceberg principle: Conscious Preconscious Superego Ego Unconscious Id Cognitive perspective focuses on how we think (or encode information) how do we see the world? How do we learn to act at sad or happy events? Cognitive therapist Attempt to change the way you think. Nature (heredity) vs. nurture Nature: vulnerability and resistance genes Persistence of stressors, Negative environment, and trauma Development of depression or anxiety problems Psychological Research Systematic inquiry aimed at the discovery of new knowledge Hypothesis A prediction (or guess) that can be TESTED The scientific method Systematically acquiring knowledge and understanding about behavior and other phenomena Operational Definition: Translating a hypothesis into specific, testable procedures that can be measured and observed Example: Frustration leads to aggression Descriptive Research Observes a previously existing situation but doesn’t make changes. Correlations Examining two sets of variables Is there a relationship? DOES NOT SHOW CAUSATION Selective attention ‘Change blindness’ Transcendental music and meditation Olfactory System Chemicals create mental perception of smell-sloughed off objects and people Humans are capable of distinguishing between 10,000 and 10,000 Nasal septum detects pheromones-detect predators Send info to olfactory bulb Taste-Receptor cells (taste buds) respond to four basic stimulus qualities: sweet, sour, salty, and bitter Detects molecules of substances that have dissolved in saliva PTC Genes and Bitter Taste Sense of Pain Endorphins-Neurotransmitters in the brain that have a pain-killing effect Gate-control theory--pain impulses inhibited by closing neural gates in spinal cord Mental conditions-focusing on the pain, intense concentration or distraction, boredom, involvement and interest in life activities. What is perception and sensation? EyeRetina, rods cones, pupil, iris. Retina. The pupil dilates to allow more light in and to protect the retina. The iris controls light levels inside of the eye. The retina is a thin layer of nerve cells at the back of the eyeball that contains rods and cones. A rod is a thin cylindrical receptor cell that is highly sensitive to light. A cone is a cone shaped receptor cell that is responsible for color brightness and light perception. color blindness Sound, how it works Major parts of ear (cochlea, eardrum, semicircular canals) olfactory system and smell Pain, major theories top up/bottom up processing size and perceptual constancy Stages of sleep, sleep cycles (time) Consciousness, hypnosis, meditation dream theories major sleep disorders circadian rhythms drug types psychoactive, stimulants, narcotics, depressants etc. addiction, types (physiological vs. psychological) Consciousness-Awareness of activity/surroundings Waking Consciousness-organized, clear thoughts Altered States: Shift in mental activity ‘Altered States’ Shift in mental activity Increased alertness Decreased alertness Divided attention SLEEP Dreaming Meditating “High” Drugs, exercise, etc. Hypnotized Comatose Anesthetized Terri Schiavo, diagnosed as being in a persistent vegetative state (PVS). Was Terry conscious? The cochlea (snail, spiral shaped tube that monitors sound through vibration) contains the semi circular canals (inner most part of the ear, three fluid filled canals that carry vibrations through the protection of the fluid). Sound waves enter into the outer ear, then they enter the inner ear by striking the ear drum, which acts as a drum and vibrates. This causes the ossicles to move, which send sound through the semicircular canals and then through to the cochlea Color blindness is a lack of some cones in the retina and is the ability to see pigments and is a lack of cones Sound localization is the ability to detect where something is based on where it sounds like it comes from Sound is the travel of air particles through the air that function through vibration Non-REM sleep is the restful sleep, dreamless sleep REM sleep is where dreams occur. The least able to be influenced by outside stimulation and the most deep sleep The retina is a bundle of nerves at the back of the eyeball, it contains the rods and cones and monitors the light that comes through the pupil Rods are rod shaped structures inside the retina that monitor low light vision Cones are cone shaped structures inside the retina that monitor color vision Perception and sensation, self explanatory Hypnosis is a trance like state in which you allow yourself to be susceptible to suggestion Meditation-refocusing your attention to an altered state of consciousness Circadian rhythm is your 24 hour sleep cycles that monitor wakefulness and sleep Narcolepsy is uncontrollable sleeping during the day when you should be awake Sleep apnea is the inability to breathe while sleeping Night terrors are jolting awakening from non-REM sleep Consciousness is slight increase of being aware of your surroundings Waking consciousness is the ability to perceive and critically think Altered states is the transition between those The unconscious wish fulfillment theory is when the meaning of the dream is unclear Dreams for survival theory is when your ways of every day survival are reexamined in your psyche Activation synthesis theory is when your memories are strung together in a story line Stage 1 sleep is predreaming Stage 2 is kind of a retract, sudden spikes of brain waves Stage 3 is much slower brain wave functions, non-REM Stage 4 is REM sleep, most deep sleep Perceptual constancy is a phenomenon in which physical objects are perceived as unvarying and consistent despite changes in appearance or in physical environment. Example, the moon Pain theories-endorphins are pain killing hormones- impulses inhibited by closing neural gates in spina chord Olfactory system-smell chemical messages tell us the color of something by the way it smells Gustatory system-taste, sweet, salty, bitter, sour. Taste receptor cells Nasal septum-detects pheromones Top down processing-able to unscramble words for example Bottom up processing- 2/3 of Americans have sleep disorders Somnambulism-sleep walking Insomnia-the inability to fall asleep, stay asleep and compromised quality-crummy nights sleep Estimated that 60% of Americans have insomnia Sleep apnea-snoring Night terrors-nightmares on steroids, extreme panic Sleep Deprivation-Many symptoms including growth problems Accelerates aging Cardiovascular disease Learning-Relatively permanent change in behavior Brain changes Experience based Types of learning (Habituation) Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Cognitive-Social learning Habituation Familiarity with stimulus from repeated exposure Orienting reflect Eyes widen, heart beats faster, etc. Weakens with continued presentation of stimulus Primitive! Found in all organisms Power of reward to motivate Classical conditioning Neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it’s paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Psychic secretions led to classical conditioning, though unintentionally Neutral stimulus: before conditioning, this stimulus does not naturally bring about the response of interest Unconditioned Stimulus: Unconditioned=unlearned Naturally occurring, Causes involuntary response Unconditioned Response-involuntary response to naturally occurring stimulus Involuntary response to naturally Neutral stimulus: the lightning Unconditioned stimulus: Stimulus discrimination if two stimuli are sufficiently different from each other that one brings about the conditioned response but the other does. Operant conditioning BF Skinner Strengthening or weakening of a voluntary behavior Behavior depends on consequences Law of effect (Thorndike) Responses followed by positive outcomes are repeated Responses followed by negative outcomes are not repeated Fixed Ratio-reinforcement depends on a definite number of responses Variable ratio-number of responses needed for reinforcement varies Fixed interval-reinforcement depends on a fixed time Variable interval-time between reinforcement varies. Punishment-Stiumuls that decreases likeliness of a behavior Postivie punishment-adding an unpleasant stimulus to the environment Ex: scolding a child for lying Negative punishment-Removing a pleasant stimulus Ex: Grounding a teenager from video games Memory: The process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information Sensory Memory Storage purpose: holds sensory information Duration: lasts up to half sec for visual; 2-4 sec for auditory Capacity-large Short-term Memory Storage Purpose-holds perceptions for analysis Duration-up to thirty sec without rehearsal Capacity-limited 5-9 items Long-term Memory Storage Purpose-relatively permanent storage Duration-relatively permanent Capacity-relatively unlimited Chunking: Grouping information into separate units Maintenance rehearsal: Repeating Long-term memory categories Explicit memory: With conscious recall Implicit Memory: without conscious recall Semantic Memory-Facts and general knowledge, bananas are yellow, 12 months in a year, etc. Episodic memory: Personal experiences and events, your high school graduation, etc. Procedural memory: Motor skills and habits Classically Conditioned Memory-Conditioned responses to conditioned stimuli, phobias, some aspects of prejudice Priming- Earlier exposure facilitates retrieval, heightened fears after reading a scary novel, etc. With long term memory, info is stores on a fairly permanent basis Sensory Memory refers to the initial, momentary storage of information Retrieval cues: a stimulus that allows you to more easily recall a long-term memory because it is connected to that memory QUIZ THREE STUDY GUIDE Learning definition, major types (classical, operant, observational) classical conditioning: Neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it’s paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response. Operant: Major contributors (e.g. Pavlov, Skinnner) Habituation, conditioning spontaneous recovery, generalization, discrimination, reinforcement (positive, negative), punishment cognitive psychology types of memory (long term, short term, sensory) Stages of memory (e.g. retrieval vs. storage vs. encoding) Procedural, declarative, semantic, episodic implicit vs explicit flashbulb memories memory loss and forgetting, different theories (e.g. decay) Memory interference Memory techniques (e.g. chunking)
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