PSY Week 7 Part 2 Ch. 9
PSY Week 7 Part 2 Ch. 9 PSY 151
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by merlec16 on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 151 at Wake Forest University taught by Dr. Schrillo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Wake Forest University.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
PSY Chapter 9 Notes p. 424-434 Heuristics Are Mental “Rules of Thumb” Heuristic- mental problem-solving shortcuts or “rules of thumb” o Very fast and often accurate, but they are not always accurate, and relying upon them can result in numerous erroneous assumptions The Availability Heuristic Availability heuristic- biases people toward using mental information that is more easily “accessible” or mentally available o Used when coming to a judgement about how often something occurs or how likely it is to occur in the future Things ten to come to mind more easily if they have occurred recently or if they have a strong negative emotional content The Representativeness Heuristic Representativeness heuristic- when people are confronted with an example of a person or thing that they do not know how to categorize or explain, they may compare the new person or thing with prototypes of various categories until a “match” is found Works in tandem with prototypes Base Rates and the Representativeness Heuristic Base rate- the basic probability of something occurring in a population, expressed as a percentage o Can also be understood as an indication of how prevalent something is in a population Representative heuristic may lead us astray Aha! Insight! Insight- the term used to describe a situation where the solution to a problem appears suddenly “as if from nowhere” after an impasse had been reached and it seemed that the problem was not solvable o Begins when a person is unable to see how a problem can be solved in spite of numerous attempts o The solution cannot occur unless it already lies somewhere in one’s consciousness Impasse- when a person has made repeated unsuccessful attempts to solve a problem yet possesses the mental ability to solve the problem Fixation- being “stuck” in a specific way of mentally representing a problem o May occur when one applies previously successful problem- solving strategies to new problems that may or may not be solved with these strategies Re-representation of the nature of the problem may activate aspects of your memory and knowledge base not touched by the previous representation Creativity: Finding Problems and Solving Them Creativity is an important force in human life that encompasses aspects of cognition, skill, personality, motivation, and various environmental variables Problem solving is what creativity is best known for Set of behaviors: o Originality – able to think “outside the box” o Utility – output or work of creative individuals is seen useful Involved flexibility- generally open to new ideas Able to stay attuned to technological and other changes in the environments in which they work How Do Biases Affect Decision Making? Human beings are not always rational when making judgements and decisions when some uncertainty is involved Cognitive biases- any tendency toward systematic violation of principles of rational decision-making, judgement, or memory The Confirmation Bias Tells Us What We Want to Hear Confirmation bias- the tendency to pay more attention and accord more weight to evidence that confirms what we already believe – or even to seek such evidence out – while ignoring evidence that would disconfirm our beliefs People are often simply “building a case” for what they already believe Prejudice and harmful stereotyping are also strongly reinforced by it Belief Persistence Belief persistence- once a belief is formed and confirmed it can be highly resistant to change, even when disconfirming evidence is inescapable Find a way to “quarantine” the evidence Critical Thinking- Chance Is Lumpy: The Gambler’s Fallacy Gambler’s fallacy- a misperception of randomness that causes a person to believe that the likelihood of a random event is affected by events that precede it o People often incorrectly assume that the likelihood of tails occurring in a fair coin toss will increase according to the number of times heads has come up in succession Odds are exactly 50/50 every time Chance does not have a memory The likelihood of a random event occurring is not affected by events that have preceded it
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