Bio 201, Week 8
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren G. on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to bio 201 at Arizona State University taught by dr jim in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views. For similar materials see anatomy in Science at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
UVB—Vitamin D synthesis PABA throws off free radicals when hit with ultra violet light Zinc oxide can too, not as bad as Skin cancer Skin cancer: induced by the ultraviolet radiation Most often on the head and neck Most common in fairskinned people and elderly Most common cancer, easiest to treat Highest survival rate (if detected and treated early) Three types of skin cancer named for epidermal cells in which they originate Most skin tumore are benign and do not metastasize A crucial risk factor for nonmelanoma skin cancers of the p53 Determination of skin cancer ABCDE Rule A: asymmetry; the two sides of the pigment area do not math B: border is irregular and exhibits indentations C: color is black, brown, tan, and sometimes red or blue, unusual color for you Change in color D: diameter is larger than 6mm (size of a pencil eraser), changes in size E: elevation is 3 mm higher than the skin surface; change in height Any change in a preexisting mole Basal Cell Carcinoma Arises from cells of stratum basale and invades dermis, slow growing Not neceasarrily aggressive, least likely of skin cnacer to metastisize Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stratum spinosum Looks like a raspberry or open sore More likely to metastasize Malignant Melanoma Most deadly skin cancer Stratum basale Arises from preexisting mole, melanocytes ABCD(E) Resistant to chemotherapy Can bleed, spreads quickly Burns Burns: leading cause of accidental death Fires, kitchen spills, sunlight, ionizing radiation, strong acids or bases, or electrical shock Deaths result primarily from *fluid loss*, infection and toxic effects of eschar—burned, dead tissue debribement—removal of eschar Classified according to the depth of tissue involvement First degree: only effect epidermis, partial thickness burn Sun burn Second degree: involve epidermis and part of the dermis Blisters, long time to heal, possible scarring Third degree: all the way through the skin, fat and muscle tissue, full tissue Requires skin grafting Autograft: tissue from differnet region of patient Isograft: graft from identical twin Temporary graft: Homograft: from unrelated person Heterograft: from another species (i.e. pig) Amnion from an afterbirth Artificial skin from silicon and collagen Rule of nines Estimate the severity of burns Considered critical: Over 25% of the body has seconddegree burns Over 10% of the body has thirddegree burns Thirddegree burn on face, hands, or feet Bone Os Osteo Tissues and organs of the skeletal system Histology of osseous tissues Bone development Physiology of osseous tissue Bone disorders Bone as a tissue Osteology: the study of the bone, skeletal specimen collections Skeletal system: composed of bones, cartilages, and ligaments Form strong flexible framework of the body Cartilage: forerunner of most bones, covers many joint surfaces of mature bone Ligaments: hold bones together at the joints Tendons: attach muscle to bone Classifications of bone 206 names bones Two groups Axial: long axis of the body Appendicular: bones of upper and lower limbs Classification of bones Long bone Longer than they are wide Limb bones Short bones Cubeshaped bones (wrists and ankles Sesamoid bones form withing tendons (patella) Wary in size and number Flat bones Thins, flat slightly curved ones Sternum, scapulae, ribs, most skull bones Irregular Complicated shapes Functions of the skeleton Support: hold body up, support muscles, mandible and maxilla support teeth Protection: brain, spinal cord, heart, and lungs Movement: limb movements, breathing, action of muscle on bone (lever system) Electrolyte balance: calcium and phosphate ions Acidbase balance: buffers blood against excessive pH changes Blood formation: red bone marrow is the chief producer of blood cells Constantly changing to meet your needs Bones and osseous tissue Bone (osseous tissue): connective tissue with the other matrix hardened by calcium phosphate and other minerals Mineralization/calcification: the hardening process of bone Individual bones consists of tissue, marrow, cartilage, adipose tissue, nervouse tissue, and fibrous connective tissue *continually remodels itself and interacts physiologically with all other organ systems Structure of a long bone: humerous Form in several pieces Proximal epiphysis Distal epiphysis Diaphysis Articular cartilage on the ends of long bones Arthritis is the lack of cartilage Periosteum: dense regular connective tissue Sharpey’s fibers: anchors tendon to bone Structure of a flat bone: bone of the skull Compact bone on the outside, spongy bone on the inside (diploe) Bone marrow is nutritious Both surfaces of flat bone covered with periosteum Diploe absorbs shock, spaces lined with endosteum Exam Organelles to today, especially histology and skin Bone markings Sites of muscle, ligament, and tendon attachment on externa, surfaces Areas involved in joint formation or conduits for blood vessels and nerves Three types: Projection: outward bulge of bone Depression: bow- or groove-like cut-out that can serve as passageways for vessels and Histology of osseous tissue Osteogenic cells: bone stem cells Osteoblasts: build bone, make up soft part to make bone matrix that picks up mineral Collagen Bone forming cells Line up as single layer of cells under endosteum and periosteum Are non-mitotic, must make more stem cells Synthesizes soft organic matter of matric which hardens by mineral deposition Stress and fractures stimulate osteocytes to reinforce or rebuild bone Secrete osteocalcin: thought to be the structural protein of bone Stimulates insulin secretion of pancreas Increase insulin sensitivity in adipocytes which limit the growth of adipose tissue May have a role in male fertility by boosting testosterone synthesis Osteocytes: mature bone cells, trapped in matrix (lacunae) Former osteoblast that have become trapped in the matrix they have deposited Lacunae: tiny cavities where osteocytes reside Canaliculi: little channels that connect lacunae Cytoplasmic processes reach in canaliculi, cells can communicate with each other Decide when it’s time to make new matrix or reabsorb it Produce biochemical signals that regulate bone remodeling when stress, (piezoelectric) Osteoclasts: recycle bone Bone-dissolving cells found just deep to periosteum Break down hard matrix when you need calcium Helps remodel bone where needed (exercising to build muscle) Same stem cells as bone marrow Can have up to 50 nuclei Ruffled border breaks down bone Resorption bays (howship lacunae): pits on surface of bone where osteoclasts reside All start as osteogenic cells The matrix Matrix of osseous tissueis about 1/3 organic 2/3 inorganic Organic matter: synthesized by osteoblasts Make collagen Inorganic matter: 85% hydroxyapatite, what gives bone hardened matrix Bone is a composite material: combination of a ceramic and a polymer Real ceramic—as in pottery—bone china Polymer—collagen Ceramic portion allows the bone to support the body weight, and protein portion (collagen) gives bone some degree of flexibility Compact bone Osteon (haversian system): the basic structural unit of compact bone Formed by central canal and ints concentric lamella connected to each other by canaliculi Skeleton receives about half a lite of blood per minute Trabeculae versus spicule Trabulculae meet up, spicules stick out Spongy bone Diploe Trabeculae indicate lines of stress Vertical: body weight Horizontal: gluteal muscles, indicate muscle Osteoporosis Decrease in the density and mass of osseous tissue Break down of matrix Decrease in spongy bone especially Affect both gender, especial women Small stature, hereditary factors; Asian or European ancestry especially prone Risk decreased with diet and exercise Significantly increase risk of fractures Dowagers hump Additional risk factors for osteoporosis: Petite body form Insufficient exercise to stress bones Diet poor in calcium and protein Smoking Hormone-related conditions Hyperthyroidism Low blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone Diabetes mellitus Immobility Males with prostate cancer taking androgen-suppressing drugs Bone marrow Bone marrow: general term for soft tissue that occupies the marrow cavity of a long boone and small spaces amid the trabeculae Red marrow: myeloid tissue In nearly every bone in a child Hemopeitec: bloodforming Axial skeleton
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