GEOG 1001 10.12.16
GEOG 1001 10.12.16 Geog 1001
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melanie Basinger on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geog 1001 at University of Cincinnati taught by Nicholas Dunning in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Physical Geography in Geography at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
Introduction to Physical Geography 10.12.16 Flooding Flooding along the Mississippi River in 1993 may have been made worse as the result of human engineering because o levees that were built to protect property on the floodplains allowed large volumes of water to rise above the level of the floodplain; when some of these levees failed, catastrophic flooding occurred in these areas QUIZ QUESTION: The 1993 Mississippi River flood may have been made worse as the result of human engineering because? Flood control levees increase the height and volume of river water above the floodplain in many places River stage: water level in a river at a given time River regime: normal pattern of river stages throughout a year Floodcrest: the highest level a river reaches following a storm Recurrence interval: the average length of time before an event (e.g. flood) of the same magnitude is repeated; also known as return period o The basic flaw in using recurrence interval statistics for flooding is that it assumes that conditions in the watershed have not been altered Geographic information systems can be used to monitor river levels and help predict flooding. GIS can also be used to simulate flood risks for any location Fluvial Processes and Landforms Fluvial processes: land forming processes in which running water is the dominant fluid agency o Running water picks up and transports loose earth materials as sediments and deposits this material downstream. Fluvial landforms are created by both the erosion and deposition of earth materials The Universal Soil Loss Equation is a useful tool for both understanding soil loss and sediment production o E = K x R x S x L E = soil loss K = soil (soil texture & organic matter) R = rainfall intensity S = slope (angle and length) L = land use Is the greater rate of soil erosion in the southeastern U.S. (compared to the Midwest) the result of human or natural factors? o The Universal Soil Loss Equation tells us that if a farm in Ohio and a farm in Alabama have identical land use practices, the farm in Alabama will lose 4 times as much soil because rainfall intensity is much higher in Alabama and soils there are inherently more vulnerable to erosion QUIZ QUESTION: Which factor in the Universal Soil Loss Equation is most responsible for the greater soil erosion rates in Alabama than Ohio? Rainfall intensity An important effect of human activity (e.g., agriculture) has been to increase the sediment load of most streams and rivers Sheetwash (sheet flow): overland runoff that is not organized into channels Rill erosion: overland runoff that is organized into small channels Gully: a deep trench cut during the advanced stages of accelerated soil erosion Sediment: transported loose earth materials Alluvium: stream-laid sediments typically found in steam channel and floodplain deposits Stream capacity: the maximum load of sediment that can be carried by a stream at a given discharge rate (velocity X cross-sectional area) o As stream velocity increases, stream capacity increases o As stream velocity decreases, stream capacity decreases Stream load (sediment load): the amount of sediment carried by a stream at a given time Settling velocity: the threshold velocity below which a particle of a given size and density can no longer be transported by a given fluid agent