Modern Israel week 2
Modern Israel week 2 CORE-UA 537-001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Yuma Iwasaki on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CORE-UA 537-001 at New York University taught by Ronald Zweig in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Cultures and Contexts: Modern Israel in Core Curriculum at New York University.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
Yuma Iwasaki Cultures & Contexts: Modern Israel, Fall 2016 Class 3: Mass Immigration September 13, 2016 Declaration of independence states that the state is open to free Jewish immigration which contributes to the Jewish population growth. While Britain wanted to encourage the growth of Jewish population, the British realized that the Arabs in Palestine were unhappy and began to regulate immigration (1921). Separate from White Paper. As Jews became more wealthy, they bought lands and displaced the Arab population – this created political unrest Economic absorbing capacity: number of Jews allowed in Palestine will be limited to the economic capacity of Palestine so that it won't create any Arab unemployment Jews had to create employment (building new structures, etc) in order to allow immigrants into Palestine – the British then would issue immigration certificates based on the number of job employments Free Jewish immigration becomes major demand against British Because immigration was restricted, migrants were also selected: chose young, healthy people who were ready to work in the agricultural field. Old, sick, and those who were only interested in urban life were less likely to gain certificates. Political selection – right wing supporters were less likely to gain certificates. Divide between Jews whose background was European (Ashkenazi) and Jews whose background was Muslim/Mediterranean, Sephardi also known as Mizrahi. European style vs Eastern/Oriental style: Ashkenazi Jews developed a spoken language from “Yiddish” which is a mixture of German and Hebrew Sephardi developed "Ladino" which is a mixture of Spanish and Hebrew. Exclusively spoken by Jews in the Ottoman empire European Jews were the ones who built up the Yishuv; Jews from the Orient never faced the Jewish enlightenment; these European Jews (Ashkenazis) were traditional & religious Example: Ashkenazi religious Jews would never go to a football game on a Sunday, but Mizrahi Jews would Immigration brought different kinds of Jews together; now it's difficult to tell Ashkenazi and Mizrahi Jews apart After 1948 – free immigration of Jews into Palestine Approximately 300,000 holocaust survivors (those who survived the concentration camps, lived in refugee camps, or displaced during the WWII) – such as Jews in Hungary, Romania and Poland (communist countries) – came to Palestine Many illegal immigrants (ex: the famous boat exodus). Illegal immigrants were sent to camps in Cyprus. Yuma Iwasaki Cultures & Contexts: Modern Israel, Fall 2016 Jewish community of Bulgaria survived because Bulgarian government decided not to send Jews to concentration camps even though they were allies of Nazi Germany – also sought refuge in Palestine Decolonization: each of the countries gain independence from the Western forces. Decolonization is a fundamentally disruptive process: communities are divided and blood is spilled. In most cases, the Jewish community was in between the colonial power and the Arab community because they were locals but also spoke the colonial power’s language. All of North Africa except for Egypt had been occupied by Western Forces (Italian, French, German). In all these countries, Jews were persecuted. Internal fighting within Palestine leads to persecution of Jews in other countries such as Libya and Morocco. Iraqi Jewish community especially took a big hit as Iraqi came back from Palestine defeated by Jews. Many Jews living in northern Africa had to seek refuge as they were attacked in their home countries. Transit camps "ma'abarot"; last one closed in 1963 Basis of major "development towns" (failed) Sociological disaster – perpetuated poverty End of egalitarian society Ashkenazi Jews lived in houses, while Mizrahi Jews lived in tents No jobs, no decent schools Divide b/w Israeli Jews and Israeli Arabs, religious and nonreligious, and Ashkenazi Jews and Mizrahi Jews Sources of finances: taxation, exports, international loans, support from outside, sterling silver balances Suspends immigration for 2 years, and resumes on 1954 in a more orderly fashion. By 1954, Israel is in a better economic situation due to German liberation. Yuma Iwasaki Cultures & Contexts: Modern Israel, Fall 2016 Class 4: Law of Return and Law of Citizenship September 15, 2016 Officially recognized religions in Israel: Judaism, Islam, Christianity (which had 10 denominations), Druze, Baha'l – state supports religious clergy & religious institutions; each community is entitled to conduct its own affairs in certain spheres Rabbis determined who can get married and who can't – couples could go to Cyprus to get married and come back to Israel as husband and wife (some couples did so as a protest against Orthodox Jewish rules) Majority of Israeli are not orthodox Jews, but the group leading the country's independence (Haredi community) were orthodox Jews. These people believed that Jews could only be returned to Israel by God, and thought any other ways of return was presumptuous. Status Quo Arrangement (July 1947) Arrangement demanded by the Haredi community No public transportation on Sabbath (with exception during emergencies) Public institutions serve only kosher food (highly controversial) Chief Rabbinate courts are responsible for marriage, divorce, and conversion Best rabbinical (Yishuva) students be exempted from military service Religious girls be exempt from serving in the army Women in army camps is a huge issue to religious people because the bible says women are not allowed to handle weapons. Jewish religion conception: Jews don't believe you have to be a Jew to be saved; they don't look for converts If your mother is Jewish, you are Jewish, even if you don't want to be Ultraorthodox Jews (Haredi) believes man's ultimate goal is to become closer to God, which can be achieved through education. Women can go work, but men have to study. Hared means “to be anxious” in Hebrew. Hasidic Jews believe learning is not the only path to God. Being happy and enjoying life is also a path to God. (Comparison to Haredi who thinks scholarship is the only path to God). National religious Jews participate fully in the state, carry the burden of citizenship, and has a kosher home Large majority of Jews consider themselves traditional Jews – may or may not have a kosher home, but respects religious holidays Bible says certain people can't marry divorced people Divorced women can remarry, only if there's a document (a “get”) from the exhusband. Men can remarry without documents. Rabbis try everything to make men sign a get; some people are in jail for not releasing their wife from their marriage. Widows can't remarry unless there's proof that the husband is dead. Yuma Iwasaki Cultures & Contexts: Modern Israel, Fall 2016 You can break any law if it's a matter of life and death
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