New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Modern Israel week 4

by: Yuma Iwasaki

Modern Israel week 4 CORE-UA 537-001

Yuma Iwasaki
GPA 3.85

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class notes from week 4 (Class #7, #8).
Cultures and Contexts: Modern Israel
Ronald Zweig
Class Notes
ModernIsrael, CoreCurriculum, CORE-UA537, NYU, RonaldZweig, classnotes, studyguides
25 ?




Popular in Cultures and Contexts: Modern Israel

Popular in Core Curriculum

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Yuma Iwasaki on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CORE-UA 537-001 at New York University taught by Ronald Zweig in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Cultures and Contexts: Modern Israel in Core Curriculum at New York University.

Similar to CORE-UA 537-001 at NYU


Reviews for Modern Israel week 4


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 10/12/16
Yuma Iwasaki Cultures & Contexts: Modern Israel, Fall 2016 Class 7: German Reparations September 27, 2016 Restitution, indemnification, reparations  JRSO – Jewish Restitution Successor Organization 1949: Israel joins the UN; West Germany does not join till much later. Israel boycotts existence of  Germany in UN.  Public opinion in Israel are against negotiating with Germany (reparations among other things)  Controversy: Israel didn't exist during Holocaust so how can it demand restitution from  Germany? 1950~:   Difficulty of dealing with the new German government; there were no war criminals but there  were still people who aligned themselves with the Nazis within the new government.  No formal apologies were made by the government for the action of the Nazis.  1951: Germany acknowledges the "unspeakable crimes done in the name of German people".  First sign of remorse from the side of Germany.  September 25th, 1951: German chancellor addresses the reparation that has to be paid, not as a  form of forgiveness but as “a step towards reconciliation”.  October 1951: meeting of 23 Jewish global organizations to discuss whether to negotiate with  Germany and if so, what to demand.  Claims conference  Reparations are made between  sovereign  governments (does not apply to Israel, since it was not  created at the time of the Holocaust). Israel demanded reparation cost of rehabilitating the refugees  (500,000 people) from when Hitler came to power till Israel was created. 500,000 x $3,000 = $1.5 billion – this was the amount of global claim: not paid to individuals, but  to the state (payment for infrastructure & taking care of refugees)  Jewish diaspora also claimed a global claim of $500 million  Indemnification – payments to all individuals who suffered damage (in refugee camps, while in  hiding and in concentration camps, etc.) Wassenaar – place of negotiation in the Netherlands (March 1952)  Germany asks the reparation to be reduced to $1 billion, and West Germany proposes to pay $720 million (75% of the total reparation) since West Germany is only 75% of Germany  West Germany can't pay all at once so instead will pay over the course of 12 years, and offers to  pay in industrial goods (such as submarines, etc.) since they can't afford to give cash Germany also owed commercial debt to the rest of the world from the war London debt conference   Israel demands to be prioritized over commercial debts Significant people: Kari Böhm – anti­Nazi German Yuma Iwasaki Cultures & Contexts: Modern Israel, Fall 2016 Goldmann – understood Germans can't afford to pay Israel and diaspora, so tells Germany to pay $720  million to Israel and $500 million DM to diaspora (which was around $140 million)   Unlike reparations, the indemnification payments actually improved over time. Eventually paid $110 DM  (this DM was worth more than the $500 million DM paid to diaspora, as the rates improved). German reparations were a huge factor in the upbringing of Israel. Germans were, to everyone's surprise,  scrupulous in honoring the terms of the reparations. Because of this, relationship between Germans and  Jews became dramatically better, especially in the young generation. In 1965, Israel recognized Germany  diplomatically and they exchanged ambassadors. Yuma Iwasaki Cultures & Contexts: Modern Israel, Fall 2016 Class 8: Aftermath of the Holocaust September 29, 2016 Attitude during the Holocaust  General feeling (during the Holocaust) in the Jewish community in Israel of "we told you so": the Zionists told the world that diaspora was dangerous and told Jews all over the world to come to  Israel. People didn't know very much about the Holocaust during its first few years.  Many wondered how it was possible that 6 million Jews were murdered without fighting. Jews in  Palestine fought against the Arabs and British, so why didn't the Jews in Europe do so? – such  claims are absurd as there were countless revolts against the Nazis in concentration camps and other places.  General concern that Jews in Europe would turn their backs on Jews in Palestine once liberated  because Palestinian Jews didn't help European Jews during the Holocaust. However, reaction of the  Holocaust survivor to Israel wasn't hostile at all, in contrary they wanted to migrate to Israel. Dealing with the consequences of the Holocaust  Concept of kapo – Jewish prisoners in Nazi concentration camps who collaborated with the  Nazis. Some of them survived the Holocaust and was trialed later in Israel for crimes they've done  in Europe. 160 cases where people went to the police with sightings of kapos, where 24 people  were found guilty.  Commemoration – 1953, state of Israel creates "Yad Vashem", a Holocaust Martyrs and Heroes  Remembrance. Israel tried to give those who died in Holocaust citizenship so that they could be  considered "Israelis", but this didn't happen due to opposition. Yad Vashem also honors those who  aren’t Jewish but risked their lives to protect Jews and didn't expect anything in return. These  people were given Israeli pensions. Incidents relating to Holocaust memory Adolf Eichmann – "Mr. Holocaust": was in charge of logistics of concentration camps. He organized the  concentration camps, organized the trains and organized the people into groups. The driving force behind  the actual genocide. Kurt Becher – "asset stripper": was in charge of grabbing assets from Jews. Holocaust was the greatest  asset­seizing operation in history. Rezso/Rudolph/Israel Kastner – Zionist rescue committee, a Mapai member.  Approximately half a million Hungarian­Jews were killed during a span of 2 weeks  Kastner gets called out as a collaborator of the Nazis, because he didn't warn the Jews what was  waiting for them at the concentration camps. This was an absurd claim, since everyone already  knew what was waiting for them.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.