Modern Israel week 4
Modern Israel week 4 CORE-UA 537-001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Yuma Iwasaki on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CORE-UA 537-001 at New York University taught by Ronald Zweig in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Cultures and Contexts: Modern Israel in Core Curriculum at New York University.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
Yuma Iwasaki Cultures & Contexts: Modern Israel, Fall 2016 Class 7: German Reparations September 27, 2016 Restitution, indemnification, reparations JRSO – Jewish Restitution Successor Organization 1949: Israel joins the UN; West Germany does not join till much later. Israel boycotts existence of Germany in UN. Public opinion in Israel are against negotiating with Germany (reparations among other things) Controversy: Israel didn't exist during Holocaust so how can it demand restitution from Germany? 1950~: Difficulty of dealing with the new German government; there were no war criminals but there were still people who aligned themselves with the Nazis within the new government. No formal apologies were made by the government for the action of the Nazis. 1951: Germany acknowledges the "unspeakable crimes done in the name of German people". First sign of remorse from the side of Germany. September 25th, 1951: German chancellor addresses the reparation that has to be paid, not as a form of forgiveness but as “a step towards reconciliation”. October 1951: meeting of 23 Jewish global organizations to discuss whether to negotiate with Germany and if so, what to demand. Claims conference Reparations are made between sovereign governments (does not apply to Israel, since it was not created at the time of the Holocaust). Israel demanded reparation cost of rehabilitating the refugees (500,000 people) from when Hitler came to power till Israel was created. 500,000 x $3,000 = $1.5 billion – this was the amount of global claim: not paid to individuals, but to the state (payment for infrastructure & taking care of refugees) Jewish diaspora also claimed a global claim of $500 million Indemnification – payments to all individuals who suffered damage (in refugee camps, while in hiding and in concentration camps, etc.) Wassenaar – place of negotiation in the Netherlands (March 1952) Germany asks the reparation to be reduced to $1 billion, and West Germany proposes to pay $720 million (75% of the total reparation) since West Germany is only 75% of Germany West Germany can't pay all at once so instead will pay over the course of 12 years, and offers to pay in industrial goods (such as submarines, etc.) since they can't afford to give cash Germany also owed commercial debt to the rest of the world from the war London debt conference Israel demands to be prioritized over commercial debts Significant people: Kari Böhm – antiNazi German Yuma Iwasaki Cultures & Contexts: Modern Israel, Fall 2016 Goldmann – understood Germans can't afford to pay Israel and diaspora, so tells Germany to pay $720 million to Israel and $500 million DM to diaspora (which was around $140 million) Unlike reparations, the indemnification payments actually improved over time. Eventually paid $110 DM (this DM was worth more than the $500 million DM paid to diaspora, as the rates improved). German reparations were a huge factor in the upbringing of Israel. Germans were, to everyone's surprise, scrupulous in honoring the terms of the reparations. Because of this, relationship between Germans and Jews became dramatically better, especially in the young generation. In 1965, Israel recognized Germany diplomatically and they exchanged ambassadors. Yuma Iwasaki Cultures & Contexts: Modern Israel, Fall 2016 Class 8: Aftermath of the Holocaust September 29, 2016 Attitude during the Holocaust General feeling (during the Holocaust) in the Jewish community in Israel of "we told you so": the Zionists told the world that diaspora was dangerous and told Jews all over the world to come to Israel. People didn't know very much about the Holocaust during its first few years. Many wondered how it was possible that 6 million Jews were murdered without fighting. Jews in Palestine fought against the Arabs and British, so why didn't the Jews in Europe do so? – such claims are absurd as there were countless revolts against the Nazis in concentration camps and other places. General concern that Jews in Europe would turn their backs on Jews in Palestine once liberated because Palestinian Jews didn't help European Jews during the Holocaust. However, reaction of the Holocaust survivor to Israel wasn't hostile at all, in contrary they wanted to migrate to Israel. Dealing with the consequences of the Holocaust Concept of kapo – Jewish prisoners in Nazi concentration camps who collaborated with the Nazis. Some of them survived the Holocaust and was trialed later in Israel for crimes they've done in Europe. 160 cases where people went to the police with sightings of kapos, where 24 people were found guilty. Commemoration – 1953, state of Israel creates "Yad Vashem", a Holocaust Martyrs and Heroes Remembrance. Israel tried to give those who died in Holocaust citizenship so that they could be considered "Israelis", but this didn't happen due to opposition. Yad Vashem also honors those who aren’t Jewish but risked their lives to protect Jews and didn't expect anything in return. These people were given Israeli pensions. Incidents relating to Holocaust memory Adolf Eichmann – "Mr. Holocaust": was in charge of logistics of concentration camps. He organized the concentration camps, organized the trains and organized the people into groups. The driving force behind the actual genocide. Kurt Becher – "asset stripper": was in charge of grabbing assets from Jews. Holocaust was the greatest assetseizing operation in history. Rezso/Rudolph/Israel Kastner – Zionist rescue committee, a Mapai member. Approximately half a million HungarianJews were killed during a span of 2 weeks Kastner gets called out as a collaborator of the Nazis, because he didn't warn the Jews what was waiting for them at the concentration camps. This was an absurd claim, since everyone already knew what was waiting for them.
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