Corrections CJ 100
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Erica Kugler on Friday April 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 100 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Douglas Klutz in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 216 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/03/15
Corrections 0 Corrections refers to all programs services facilities and organizations responsible for management of the accused and convicted 0 Common types of corrections include prisons jails probation parole halfway houses education programs work release programs community service History of Corrections in the US 0 Penitentiary an institution intended to punish criminals by isolating them from society so that they can reflect on their crimes and reform themselves 0 Commonly called prison 0 Penitentiary lockup is a type of incapacitation prevent criminals from hurting society 0 Key ideas isolation reflection on crime selfreform o 2 main models of prisons in the mid18005 Pennsylvania System New York System 0 Pennsylvania System 0 Criminals would be best reform if they are placed in penitentiaries 0 Separate confinement inmates held in isolation gt all activities done alone in cells I Commonly called solitary confinement I Goal prevent further criminal behavior from developing or being learned 0 By keeping inmates separate they could not teach each other their criminal habits I Goal have offenders reflect on their transgressions and repent I Key ideas separate confinement reform via reflection isolationno interactions 0 New York System 0 Rival to the Pennsylvania System s concept of separate confinement o Congregate system prisoners held in isolation at night but worked wother prisoners in shopsjobs during the day I Prisoners followed rule of silence amp were forbidden from looking at each other 0 Industrial efficiency should be the purpose of prisons I See prison as a business opportunity 0 Use inmates as unpaid labor for production 0 Contract labor system labor sold in a contractual basis to private employers I Private employers provide equipment I Prisons supply the labor inmates for product production I Contract labor system requires strict discipline and obedience by the inmates to ensure production efficiency 0 Key ideas congregate system contract labor system prison as a business opportunity 0 Cincinnati Prison Reforms 1870 o Advocated a new design for penitentiary system 0 Cincinnati reforms came about because of prison overcrowding 0 Ways to reduce overcrowding early release indeterminate sentencing I Prisoner reform should be rewarded wearly release I use indeterminate sentencing instead of determinate sentencing o Indeterminate sentencing nonfixed prison terms ex 1020 yrs 0 Incentivize good behavior because of possibility of early release 0 Determinate sentencing fixed prison terms ex 20 yrs in prison 0 Idea of reducing overcrowding via early release and indeterminate sentencing lead basis for modern use of parole system system to oversee offenders who are released early 0 Key ideas overcome prison overcrowding gt early release indeterminate sentencing 0 Corrections in contemporary US gt all levels of govt have some responsibility in corrections 0 Local level jails I Administered and staffed by county officiers ie Sheriff s Department officers I Jail shortterm incarceration 0 State level state prisons 0 Federal level Bureau of Prisons BOP under the Department ofJustice gt think Quiz 2 I Federal facilities are nicer than state and local facilities I Prison longterm incarceration 0 State and local governments pay 90 of nationwide corrections costs Models of Incarceration o 3 models custodial rehabilitation reintegration most common custodial o Custodial Model 0 Emphasizes security discipline and order 0 Assumes the purpose of incapacitation deterrence and retribution I Incapacitation keeps offenders from further harming society I Deterrence serves to discourage criminals from future actions that could put them back in prison I Retribution offenders are put where they belong if they break the law 0 Majority of prisons conform to this model 0 Rehabilitation Model 0 Emphasizes treatment programs ex send drug users to drug courts 0 Reintegration Model 0 Emphasize ties to familycommunity ex community corrections gt parole probation Federal Bureau of Prisons BOP Created by Congress in 1930 Facilities and inmates are classified by security levels 0 Level 1 least secure type of prison camptype setting 0 Level 5 most security type of prison 0 Supermax facility prison facility that exceeds maximum security requirements 0 Several state supermax facilities 0 Only one federal supermax facility I Florence CO gt quotAlcatraz of the Rockies Number of federal prison facilities across the US has increase in the last 25 years State Correctional Systems 0 Each state has its own prison system 0 40 states have supermax facilities 0 20000 inmates are currently held in supermax facilities 0 One of the worst state correctional facility is Pelican Bay in California 0 worst in terms of violence Private Prisons Established in response to prisonjail overcrowding and rising costs of facility maintence o Argument for private prisons 0 Private businesses can build and run prisons as effectively as the government and can do so at a lower cost to the taxpayer I Unlike govt prisons private prisons do not use taxpayer money to operate Private prison facilities hold 0 6 of all state prisoners o 15 of all federal prisoners 0 Guaranteed occupancy rate private business says it will build a facility in a city if that city agrees to subsidize the facility with prisons so that it meets a set occupancy rate 0 Ex if a private prison has an occupancy rate set at 90 full and it is currently only at 80 full the city will have to subsidize the 10 difference by transferring prisoners from other facilities to the private facility 0 Example of a private prison company Corrections Corporation of America 2 c7 0 Jails are used for detention and shortterm incarceration o Detention hold people who are awaiting trial 0 shortterm less than 1 year 0 Serve as a holding facility for social misfits junkies homeless prostitutes etc Run by county officers Sheriffs 3400 jails across the US bc of constant inmate turnover due to shortterm incarceration jails lack correctional services 0 little incentive to invest in reform programs since old people leave and new people brought in everyday jails hold a mixture of offenders gt can be a problem 0 mixture of offenders allows people to share their criminal habits and pick up on the criminal habits of others mixture setting allows for exchange of criminal behavior Community Corrections 0 Community corrections probation and parole o 70 of all corrections is community corrections 0 Physical incarceration prisonjail only 30 of all corrections 0 Seeks to build stability and success for offenders 0 Try to find employment opportunities for offenders I Get them grounded in the community I If they have a salary they are less likely to steal or do other criminal things for money 0 Community corrections is based on goal of finding the least restrictive alternative to reform o This type of reform gives people lots of freedom gt live in community not prisionjail Work and earn money