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Brain Lecture Notes

by: Tatyana Mims

Brain Lecture Notes Psychology 102

Tatyana Mims
GPA 3.0
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About this Document

If you were absent that day we had a different speaker.
Intro to Psychology
Class Notes
Psychology, 102, PSYCH1002




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tatyana Mims on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 102 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Hoane in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views.


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Date Created: 10/12/16
Brain Lecture Notes  T1: Nervous System o Central Nervous System  Brain and Spinal Cord o Peripheral Nervous System  Two parts:  Somatic Nervous System- controls voluntary behavior  Automatic Nervous System- Involuntary behavior o Controls involuntary behavior  Two subdivisions:  Sympathetic NS: prepares for emergencies, releases blood sugar, increases heartbeat, and increases blood pressure  Parasympathetic NS: restores energy, promotes digestion, slows heartbeat, and lower blood pressure  T3: Structure of the Neuron o Neuron structure: Information is received by dendrites (look like little tree branches), transmitted by the axon o The Neuron: Supporting Tissue  Glial Cells  Connective tissue that supports and provides energy for the neurons  Myelin sheath  Covering for the neuron  Neurogenesis: the formation of neurons by stem cells (hot research area in biology and neuroscience)  The Synapse:  The small gap between neurons  T4: The Action Potential o When a neuron is activated, an electrical impulse travels the length of the axon o This action potential is an all-or-nothing event o Its effect is to cause chemicals to be ejected from the end of the axon terminal o Neurotransmitters  Chemical agents that communicate across the synapse  Each molecule is a ”key” that fits a specific “lock”  They may either excite or inhibit the second neuron  Neural Transmission  Axon terminals release neurotransmitters  Neurotransmitters enters s synaptic gap  Neurotransmitter binds to receptors that it fits  Neurons Review o Axon Terminal  C. Release neurotransmitters o Dendrites  A. Receives information from neighboring neurons o Axon 2  B. Carries the message down the length of the neuron  The Effects of Neurotransmitters o Many psychological and medical problems can be traced to changes in neurotransmitters:  Low levels of serotonin are associated with severe depression  Low levels of acetylcholine- Alzheimer’s disease  Low levels of dopamine- Parkinson’s disease o Psychoactive drugs have their effects by altering the action of neurotransmitters o Some psychoactive drugs imitate neurotransmitters by stimulating/inhibiting neurons o Neurons: Communication Specialists of the Nervous System  Neurons generally do not increase in number  However, there is recent evidence that new neurons can beg grown from stem cells  However, both axons and dendrites continue to grow at the synapse  Stimulating environments produce greater changes in the synapse  T5: Other Important Chemicals Endorphins o Natural opiates:  They reduce pain, promote pleasure  T6: Hormones 3 o Endocrine glands secrete hormones into the blood stream o Slower acting than the nervous system o Pituitary gland is the master gland: 4


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