Anatomy and Physiology: Introduction and Chemistry
Anatomy and Physiology: Introduction and Chemistry 2401
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Date Created: 10/12/16
1 Anatomy and Physiology: Introduction and Chemistry Anatomy- study of structure/shape of body parts and their relationship to each other Physiology- study of function (how they work) Levels of Structural Organization 1. Chemical level- atoms and combination of atoms (molecules), smallest level 2. Cellular level- cells are basic level 3. Tissue level- groups of similar cells working together 4. Organ level- tissues working together ex. Stomach 5. System level- organs working together ex. Digestive 6. Organism level- collection of systems ex. Human System Names and Functions Integumentary- protect, create vitamin D, and heat receptors (sweating) ex. Hair, nails, skin Skeletal- create blood cells, support, protects organs, framework for organs ex. Bones Muscular- allow movement, produce body heat, posture, facial expressions ex. Muscles Nervous- sends message through stimulus, control system of the body ex. Brain, spinal cord Endocrine- hormone regulation for growth, reproduction, nutrient use, ect. ex. Pituitary gland Cardiovascular- blood flow; transports O2, CO2, waste, ect. ex. Heart, veins, arteries Lymphatic- immunity, picks up fluid and returns it to the blood while filtering it ex. Lymph nodes, spleen Respiratory- keeps blood supplied with O2 and removes CO2 ex. Lungs Digestive- break down food to absorb nutrients and distribute it to bodys cells ex. Intestines Urinary- eliminates excess waste from body, regulates water and electrolytes ex. Kidneys Reproductive (male)- testes produce sperm and sex hormones 2 Reproductive (female)- ovaries produce eggs, fertilization development of fetus, milk production Terms Homeostasis- maintaining a body’s internal environment in a relatively constant rate ex. temperature, glucose Stress- anything that disturbs the internal environment Homeostatic mechanisms- serve to maintain homeostasis Feedback systems- conceptual way of viewing how homeostatic mechanisms operate. Control center monitors input and adjust output accordingly Positive feedback- a change in 1 directions that accelerates more change in the same direction. RARE. Ex. labor contractions Negative feedback- a change in opposite direction. MOST COMMON. Ex. fever Chemistry Matter- anything which occupies space and has mass. Can be gas, liquid, or solid. Energy- the capacity to do work; put matter into motion Element- fundamental unique substance which cannot be broken down into simpler substances. They are composed of atoms. Ex. hydrogen Atom- smallest subdivision of element which still displays elements unique chemical and physical properties There are over 100 elements but 99% of our body is due to 6 Oxygen- O Carbon- C Hydrogen- H Nitrogen- N Calcium- Ca Phosphorus- P Atomic Structure Nucleus- central core, contains protons and neutrons + Proton- P , positively charged particle 3 O Neutron- N neutral - Electron- E negatively charged particle Atomic number- number of protons Atomic weight- the number of protons + the number of neutrons Isotopes- same number of protons, but the number of neutrons changes Adding protons changed element, adding neutrons changes isotope Valence shell- outer energy level Inert element- stable (due to full outer levels) and therefore chemically inactive Chemical reaction- when atoms combine with other atoms or break apart from other atoms Chemical bond- force of attraction between atoms due to their outer level electrons (valence electrons) Molecule- 2 or more atoms together by chemical bond Compound- molecule composed of atoms of 2 or more different elements ex. H2O Ion- charged particle that is the result of an atom which has gained/lost an electron Anion- negatively charged ion (atom gained electrons) Cation- positively charged ion (atom lost electron) These ions are represented by a (+/-) after the chemical symbol Types of mixtures Solvent- liquid/gas in which another material is dissolved (solvent is the material in a larger amount) Solute- the dissolved material (present in lesser amount) Solution- combination of the solvent and solute, solute usually won’t “settle” out without chemical or physical intervention Suspension- as contrasted to a solution, in a suspension, the material will settle out with time Chemical Bonds Ionic bond- a chemical bond due to transfer (one loses, one gains) of electrons, the resulting oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other. Covalent bond-involves the sharing of electrons (1, 2, or 3) from outer energy levels. These bonds are stronger, more stable and more common. There are single, double, and triple bonds in the covalent world; they are progressively stronger and more rigid. 4 Covalent bonds are much stronger because of the sharing The sharing of electrons in a covalent bond is now necessarily an equal sharing; one atom may have more “pull”… this creates polar covalent bonds [when the sharing is not equal][water] or non-polar covalent bond [if the sharing is equal][oil] The unequal sharing of electrons in a polar covalent bond creates a charged molecule… meaning one end is slightly negative and the other slightly positive, (like a bar magnet). This is exemplified by Hydrogen and Oxygen joining together to make water. Therefore, water is attracted to itself. That’s why it falls as raindrops, instead of as molecules. Hydrogen bond- a type of bond, which is too weak to bind atoms into molecules but is important in creating relationships between molecules and in causing molecules to “fold” into 3D shapes. [Weak] Hydrogen bonds are due to polar covalent bonds involving hydrogen atoms, creating a dipole (charged portions) which are attracted to other charged portions Strength in numbers= very important (among other things, H bonds cause most of the properties of water) Chemical Reactions 1. Anabolic (synthetic) reactions - combining of 2 or more atoms (or molecules) - reactants A+B AB 2. Catabolic (decomposition) - Opposite of anabolic - CH C+H 4 4 3. Exchange Reaction - A combo of the 2 - AB+CD AC+BD “switch partners” Forming bonds consumes energy and breaking bonds releases energy= chemical bonds store energy All reactions are reversible and their directions is governed by some condition like adding heat or water, this is indicated by arrows [heat] How/why do chemical reactions occur? Atoms and/or molecules must collide with enough force to overcome the repulsion of their “electron clouds” If this happens the interactions between valence electrons is possible The energy necessary to disrupt one electron configuration and allow for rearrangement is called activation energy. AKA the energy necessary to start a reaction To increase the reaction rates you can: Increase temperature (collision speed) Increase concentrations or pressure (increases collisions frequency) 5 Use catalysts(enzymes) they lower activation energy Chemical Compounds 1. Inorganic Compounds; generally small molecules; generally ionically bonded and do NOT incude carbon (with the exceptions of CO and CO ) Most d2ssolve in water (ex. water, salt, acids, and bases) 2. Organic Compounds: generally large, almost always covalently bonded; always include C&H: dissolve poorly or not at all in water Inorganic Compounds Water the most abundant and important inorganic compound in living material (~70% of humans weight) Water is a polar covalent molecule!!!! Key uses/characteristics of water Water is a solvent and suspension medium often called the “universal solvent” H 2 serves as the major transportation medium in the body carrying gases, ions, nutrients, etc. either dissolved or suspended in it Water is an important reactant, and is involved in many reactions Water is a temperature moderator preventing rapid fluctuations because H O 2 has a high heat capacity, this means that it absorbs or releases a lot of hear before changing temperature itself Water has a high vaporization heat which means it absorbs a lot of heat before its hydrogen bond break and it turns to gas (vapor) this means it cools tou when it evaporates [why you sweat.. its attracted to the skin and before it will evaporate the hydrogen bonds have to break] Since H O is polar and forms H bonds it is both cohesive and adhesive, 2 therefore it is important as a lubricating and cushioning agent [cohesive(sticks to itself) and adhesive(sticks to other things)] Salts, Acids and Bases- Molecules of acids, bases and salt readily dissolve in water… in the process they ionize dissociating into their constituent cation and anions. They are often called electrolytes for their +/- charges conduct electricity Acids- substances which when dissolved they dissociate into hydrogen ions (H+) + - and some negative ion (anion). Ex. HCl H & Cl - Since hydrogen ions are simply protons… acids are often called “proton donors” Base- a substance which when it dissolves it dissociates forming hydroxyl ions (OH-) - + and some cations. Ex. NaOH OH &Na + - Since Hydroxyl ions are strongly attracted to protons (H ) bases are often called “proton acceptors” - Alkaline= base 6 (*Note: Acids and bases react with each other in and exchange reaction to form a salt and H 2, we call this “neutralization” ex. HCl+NaOH NaCl+H [this i2 what happens when you take antacids neutralization of stomach acid]) Salt- a substance that when dissolved dissociates into anions and cations but not either H+ or OH- pH scale: The more hydrogen ions in a solution the more acidic it is The more hydroxyls… the more basic it is The pH scale is used to express the degree of acidity or alkalinity At pH 7.0 the concentrations of H+ and OH- are equal (and you have neutral water) A pH below 7.0 is acidic (coffee= 5.0, beer= 3.0, gastric juice= 1.7) A pH above 7.0 is basic (egg white= 8.0, bleach= 9.5, oven cleaner= 13.5) Living organisms and their reactions are very sensitive to even small pH changes. Our blood must remain in the range of 7.35 7.45. There are buffer systems, which resist pH changes. Organic Compounds Carbon has a 4e in its outer energy level. It needs 4 more to achieve stability, it can form up to 4 covalent bonds leading to a nearly infinite complexity and diversity of molecules. 1. Carbohydrates (sugars, starches, +++) - Serve our body as fuel (energy source) and form storage molecules (starch) - Are sometimes used structurally often as a “backbone” for complex molecules - Are composed of carbon and water ([C,H,O] ) in snme combination 3 classes… based on size A) Monosaccharides- (ex. glucose, fructose, ribose) “simple sugars” used by cells as energy source B) Disaccharides- 2 simple sugars bonded, during this reaction a molecule of H 2 is removed this is called dehydration synthesis - the reverse process… splitting a disaccharide is called hydrolysis (water splitting) C) Polysaccharides longer chains of simple sugars, used as storage molecules - Starch a storage carbohydrate found in and made by plants - Glycogen storage carbohydrate found in and made by animals (Disaccharides and polysaccharides are what we usually eat, but in order to pass through a cell membrane (and get into our body) they are first broken down to Monosaccharides.) 2. Lipids- non polar; insoluble in water but soluble in a non-polar solvent such as alcohol 7 Functions- 1) structural and insulating 2) long term energy storage 3) hormones and vitamin precursors a. Neutral fats- (triglycerides) fats and oils; long term storage and insulation; 3 fatty acid chains attached to a glycerol - Saturated fats- no double bonds (saturated with H’s) (ex. butter, animal fat - Unsaturated fats- have 1 or more double bond (if more bonds it’s a polyunsaturated) (polyunsaturated- corn and soybean oil) b. Phospholipids- modified fats containing a polar phosphate group in place of 1 fatty acid. Important in forming membranes… because phospholipids are polar at one end, they always assume a certain orientation in water c. Steroids- instead of hydrocarbon chains, they have a ring structure- essential for life but cause heart disease (ex. cholesterol, hormones, vitamin D) 3. Proteins- very complex molecules made up of chains of subunit called amino acids Functions- 1) structure hair, tendons 2) contractilemuscles 3) regulatory hormones 4) O2 transport hemoglobin 5) immunity antibodies - 20 different amino acids; all contain C, H, O, N and sometimes sulfur (S). These are bonded in various sequences varying in length and number of amino acids - Bonds formed by dehydration and called peptide bonds (dipeptide, tripeptide) - Most amino acids can be synthesized by our body; those we cannot make are called “essential amino acids” - Polypeptide= protein Levels of Organization in Proteins Primary- sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chain Secondary- the way in which primary chain coils or folds into some shape (spiral held in place by H-bonds) Tertiary- any further coiling or folding of the secondary structure Quaternary- refers to 2 or more proteins bonded together The overall shape of a protein is determined by the primary structure/sequence… since the type/sequence of amino acids determines where other bonds can be 4. Nucleic acids- large organic molecules containing C, H, O, N and phosphorus - They are composed of chains of subunits, which are called nucleotides - Each nucleotide consists of… *5 carbon sugar *phosphate *nitrogen base Types of Nucleic Acids A. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)- - Single stranded with a - Ribose sugar backbone of 5 carbon sugar - Found outside the cell alternating with phosphate (cytoplasm) group - Protein synthesis 8 - Adenine+Uracil and - Carrier of genetic code Guanime+Cytosine (chromosomes made of DNA B. - Double helix- formed by 2 C. Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) strands of nucleotides - Deoxyribose - Adenine+Thymine and - Found only in nucleus Guanine+Cytosine DNA- 2 strands are parallel to each other and the H-bonded together by the bases (bases are the “rungs” of the ladder) D. Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)- involved in temporary storage and transfer of energy throughout a cell (each cell has its own ATP) - it is often called “energy currency” because the energy released by catabolism of glucose is “captured” and stored in high energy bonds between phosphates E. Cytology F. Plasma Membrane G. Functions: - Encloses and separates the cell from its environment - Is the “contact” surface so it provides- 1) cell adhesion- to either other cells or a surface 2) cell identity markers 3) receptors- for various chemicals - Regulates “entrance/exit” of materials to/from the cell, by way of transport proteins and protein channels (pores) - Has enzyme systems so it is the site of many chemical reactions H. Structure: known as the “fluid mosaic model” because it is not rigid, rather it is a semi-fluid bi-layer of phospholipids arranged and help together by their relationship with water (polar heads on surface, non-polar tails inside) - In this lipid bilayer are proteins “floating” like icebergs I. Types Integral proteins- they’re embedded in the bilayer and serve as a transport proteins (either as cannels or carriers) Peripheral proteins- found loosely attached to either the external or internal membrane surface. These can be a. Contractile (movement) b. Enzymes (site of chemical reaction) c. Anchors (for cell adhesion) d. Part of glycocalyx (these are proteins which have branching carbohydrate chains “hanging from them” [like “flags” on the cells surface] These serve as identification markers for cell recognition) e. Receptors (which recognize molecules, etc. landing on the cell) J. Membrane transport- the p.m. is a selectively permeable barrier… some things get through, others excluded… generally due to their size, or charge, or solubility A. Passive Processes- (movement without assistance of energy by the cell) They occur “downhill”... down a concentration or pressure gradient (highlow) the cell can’t help it, it just happens) Diffusion- This occurs until even concentration (=equilibrium) is reached [generally only small, non-polar, lipid soluble particles] Facilitated diffusion- some substances (polar and/or insoluble) can combine with or pass through a “carrier” or transport protein. [it facilitates (or assists) diffusion] Osmosis- the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane K. The extracellular fluid (ECF)- which surrounds a cell can be: - Isotonic- having the same solute/solvent concentration as the intracellular fluid - Hypotonic- having a lower solute concentration (and therefore higher solvent concentration). In this case the solvent (water) will diffuse into the cell until either equilibrium is met or the cell bursts (lyse/lysis) (if someone were dehydrated you would give them a slightly hypotonic solution) - Hypertonic- having a higher solute and lower solvent concentration than the cell. This causes water to diffuse out of the cell and the cell might shrink. (shrink= crenation) B. Active Processes- involve expending energy (ATP) to move things which are either too big to diffuse or are going against the concentration gradient (lowhigh) Solute pumping- transport of (mostly ions) small things through the protein pumps “revolving doors” against concentration gradient Bulk transport- a. Endocytosis- the cell membrane surrounds something and pinches it off bringing it inside the cell L. Phagocytosis- solids “cell eating” M. Pinocytosis- liquids “cell drinking” b. Exocytosis- opposite of endocytosis; dumping content out, how cell secretes hormones/waste N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. AA. AB. AC. AD. AE. AF. AG. AH. AI. AJ. AK. AL. AM. AN. Parts of the Cell AO. Cytoplasm- matrix between the plasma membrane and the nuclear membrane. Fluid to gelatin like solution with many molecules/organelles suspended in it AP.Organelles- (little organs) specialized, compartmentalized (membrane usually enclosed) structures which perform/contain some metabolic function AQ. Nucleus- large, spherical, central organelle, controls all activity and contains the genetic material AR. Parts: - Nuclear membrane- liquid bilayer - Nucleoplasm- gel matrix - Nucleolus- RNA producing region - Chromatid- DNA (genetic material) when unwound; when it is lightly coiled it is called chromosomes AS. Ribosomes- structures made of ribosomal RNA, site of protein synthesis or protein factories. Some are found loose in the cytoplasm; others are attached to the ER AT. Endoplasmic Reticulum(ER)- a membranes tubular network that is continuous with the nuclear membrane - Rough ER- has ribosomes attached and is involved in producing proteins to be secreted - Smooth ER- no ribosomes; some liquid/cholesterol synthesis and serves as tubular transport network AU. Golgi Apparatus- flat, membrane sacks which modify and package proteins into vesicles for storage/export AV.Mitochondria- “peanut” shaped; double membrane enclosed organelle specialized for ATP productions (“power house”) AW. Vesicles- membrane enclosed bag of something AX. Cytoskeleton- extensive network of microtubules and microfilaments which support/shape the cell AY. Centrioles- paired organelles involved in cell division and control of cytoskeleton AZ. Cilia- small hair like projections which create currents outside the cell that move substances along the outside of the cell BA. Flagella- long whip like cellular extension which moves the cell (in humans only on sperm) - DNA contains the genetic instructions for making proteins; cells make proteins by translating the genetic code (a nitrogen base sequence) into a protein (amino acid sequence) - Therefore DNA controls life by controlling protein synthesis BB. Replication- duplication of DNA (chromosomes)- creating an exact replica of the molecules, occurs during interphase in preparation for mitosis and cytokinesis BC. Mitosis- nuclear division involves creating 2 exact duplicate nuclei (each with a complete set of chromosomes). This is how somatic cells (body cells) duplicate. BD. Cytokinesis- refers to cytoplasmic division and the creation of 2 cells BE. Chromosomes highly coiled DNA around protein BF. Chromatin uncoiled DNA BG. Chromatid half of a duplicated chromosome, 2 chromatids are joined at a point called a centromere, the centromere is also the place where the spindle fibers from the centrioles will attach BH. Gene- sequence of nucleotides (so it is a portion of DNA molecule), which codes for the synthesis of one polypeptide chain (=protein) BI. Transcription- using the mRNA “coded message” to produce a protein (remember the code is in the sequence of mRNA’s nitrogen bases- AUGC, whereas protein is an amino acid sequence. So translation is the translation of the mRNA message into a protein BJ. DNA—-- transcription mRNA---- translation protein BK. 3 Types of RNA BL.mRNA- (messenger) carries the DNA message from the nucleus to the protein synthesis site- a ribosome BM. rRNA- (ribosomal) is the ribosomes (site of protein synthesis) BN. tRNA- (transfer) carries amino acids to the ribosome where protein synthesis is occurring BO. BP.AGCTTAACG (DNA) BQ. UCGAAUUGC (mRNA) BR. BS. BT. BU.
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