Govt 132: Chapter 3
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ghost21 on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GOVT 132 at George Mason University taught by Eric Shiraev in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 2 views.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
Govt 132—Introduction to International Policy Dr. Eric Shiraev International Relations Chapter 3 The Liberal Perspective [Ideas] 1. Does not believe power politics is inevitable source and outcome of international relations. One country’s gain may not mean another country’s loss. 2. Emphasizes international economic cooperation and interdependence 3. Sees international organizations and non-state actors as influences shaping state preferences and policy choices 4. Believes that spread of international law and democracy helps to secure lasting peace [Early Attempts to Implement Liberal Principles] -increasing number of government officials and international humanitarian organizations hope to impose “civilized” constraints on warfare -1899 first international disarmament conference convened in Netherlands at Russia’s initiative -1907 second disarmament conference, many European states signed Hague Convention which band some lethal technologies in warfare and regulated treatment of prisoners and civilians during wartime [Comparing Liberalism and Realism] Liberalism -states are important, but not only actors in international affairs. International Institutions and non-state also important -Order and Stability achieved through interdependence and goodwill, mutual trust, and compromise -military force used to restrain aggressor and only after international diplomacy fails Realist -Sovereign states are principal actors in international relations -Order and stability achieved by power balancing among states and mutual fear of major war -Military force or threats to use force are most efficient means of power balancing [Democratic Peace Theory] -Immanuel Kant’s thesis on “perpetual peace” 1. Institutions of representative democracy discourage going to war against other democracies 2. Because of shared values and hared norms of behavior, democratic states regard each other as partners rather than enemies 3. Economic interdependence makes war unacceptable for economic reasons [Additional Notes--Lecture] -Fourteen Points was a statement of principles for world peace that was used for peace negotiations in order to end World War 1 -1987; Mikhail Gorbachev released Perestrokia: New Thinking for Our Country and the World argued to achieve global stability and peace world leaders should: Reject use of force in foreign policy Put aside ideological differences Build new international community -League of Nations formally established in 1919 at peace conference in Paris—Goals: prevention, mediations and peaceful resolution of interstate conflicts economic cooperation disarmament support of basic human rights -Issues the League of Nations faced: difficulty imposing own decision inefficiency of collective decision-making -UN Charter1945 Ideas -rejection of power politics -emphasis on non-state actors and international organization -Spread of international law and democracy helps to secure lasting peace -emphasis on international cooperation and interdependence [Arguments of Liberalism] -Obsolesce of Big wars -lessons of diplomacy -democratic peace -soft power [Democratic Peace Theory] -representative political institutions discourage war strategies -economic interdependence makes war unacceptable -shared values and norms of behavior reduce the probability of war -liberal states do exercise peaceful restraint and separate peace exists among them [Soft Power] -ability to influence other states by example, through economic and social success no military build-up/use of force based on morals setting an example Ex: Confucius Institute [Key Terms] Liberalism—school of thought based on idea that international organizations, economic cooperation, interdependence and democracy allow states to avoid power politics and establish lasting peace. Global Disarmament—universal and voluntary elimination by states of their offensive weapons Neoliberalism (neoliberalism institutionalism)—approach that postulates that states prefer to seek security not through power politics, but in the context of a complex of a complex interdependence among states. Diplomacy—management of international relations through negotiations Democratic peace theory—theory that democracies are not likely to fight one another Soft Power—state’s ability to influence other state by example, through economic and social success Intergovernmental Organization—(IGO) association of several nation-states or nongovernmental organizations for the purpose of international cooperation Transnational Cooperation—interaction of non-state agencies, network of states, and groups of citizens Policy Climate—prevailing sentiment among policy makers and other influential individuals Globalization—growing interdependence of countries and their economies, growing importance of international exchanges of goods and ideas, and increased openness to innovation Atlanticism—belief that relationship between US and Europe is focus of national interest