Chapter 27 & 28 notes
Chapter 27 & 28 notes BSCI-10110-002
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vivian Okocha on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSCI-10110-002 at Kent State University taught by Dr. Bade in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see Biological Diversity in Biology at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
Chapter 27 Protists Protists are eukaryotes Eukarya = organisms with a nucleus o Multicellularity (differentiation in cells o Sexual reproduction Protists = everything except plants, fungi, and animals Morphological innovations evolved in protists: o Organelles (mitochondria) o Nucleus (endomembrane ststem) o Cytoskeleton Endosymbiosis = host cell supplies bacterium with protection and carbon compounds; Bacterium supplies host cell with ATP Characteristics: o Size of bacteria o Double membrane o Chromosomes within mitochondria (circular) Chloroplasts occur when cyanobacteria was involved Evidence> chloroplasts within diatoms Secondary symbiosis: Eukaryotic cell becomes engulfed by another eukaryotic cell (4 membranes) Ex) Brown algae (Kelp) Development of nucleus o Occurs as plasma of cells infold o Infoldings of plasma membrane surround chromosomes o Eukaryotic cell arises with infolding, witch becomes the Endoplasmic Reticulum Diversification of Nuclei o Ex) Giardia = 2 identical nuclei Structures for support and protection o Diatoms Source of primary production Glassy cell wall made of silicon dioxide How protists obtain food: o Ingestion from particles o Absorb molecules from the environment o Carry out photosynthesis Photosynthesis o Photosynthetic – autotrophic organisms o Some heterotrophic Mixotrophic organisms (meaning there is a combination in how they obtain food) Key lineages of protists o Excavata – includes euglena, diplomonads (2 nuclei & pathogenic - disease causing) o Alveolata – ciliated, dinoflagellates, apiocomplexans o Stramenopila – diatoms & brown algae Phagocytosis is the technical term for ingesting food particles Mixotrophy = carrying out both photosynthesis and heterotrophic forms of metabolism Chapter 28 Green Algae & Plants Viridiplante = green plants of which consists of the green algae and land plants Green algae = photosynthetic organisms Closest living thing to land plants Transition from aquatic to land Diploid cells undergo meiosis (which is when cells divide and end up giving ½ of the number of chromosomes) and then mitosis (which is the division of cells but the number of chromosomes stays the same) Pollen grains produce 2 sperm Angiosperm creates haploid cells Sporophytes produce spores that are haploid Plants, in order to survive must overcome: o Damage from excessive light (UV radiation) o Evolution of pigments in plant structures o Prevention of water loss Ex) cuticle of a leaf (waxy layer that prevents water loss) Ex) Stomata pores allow gas exchange Movement towards becoming land plants involve: o Growing taller o Evolution of vascular tissue (cells that conduct water) like lignin which allows growth and rigidity o Trachieds = more lignin in addition to pores which led to bigger structure of vessel elements o Evolution of vascular plants Ex) ferns Angiosperms Reproduction on land o Plants produce resistant spores Ex) pollen grains o Gametes protected in complex structures = “gameangia” o Male: Antheridia o Female: Archegonia o Embryos are retained and nourished by the parent plant Life cycle (memorize) o Fertilization is always between haploid gametes, which fuse to form a diploid zygote, then growth through mitosis where cells divide and DNA stays the same, then grow into sporophytes which produce haploid spores in the process of meiosis which is the division of cells and DNA Fruit develops from the ovary wall Gameophytes produces gametes Megaspore is completely enclosed in the ovary **The flagella used by some plant sperm is homologous to flagella in some protists** Microspores go on to be pollen grains Double Fertilization in zygote and formation of a triploid cell Convergent evolution: along with flower evolution, pollinators evolved as well Key lineages: o Charophyceae – algae o Byrophyta – mosses o Pteridophyta – ferns o Pinophyta o Monocotyledons* o Eudicotyledons* *angiosperms are enclosed -> cotyledons: monocots – vascular tissue is scattered dicots – vascular tissue in circular arrangement
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