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Bio 106 D, Genes, Week 5

by: Lydia Laws

Bio 106 D, Genes, Week 5 BIO*106*D

Marketplace > Elon University > Biology > BIO*106*D > Bio 106 D Genes Week 5
Lydia Laws
Elon University

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About this Document

The second lesson of genes covers the topics the basics of terms regarding heredity and genetics as well as learning about the Punnet square and how researchers can use this to determine physical t...
Biology: The Science of Life
Kathleen Gallucci
Class Notes
Biology, Genes. Genetics
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lydia Laws on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO*106*D at Elon University taught by Kathleen Gallucci in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Biology: The Science of Life in Biology at Elon University.

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Date Created: 10/12/16
Genes Lesson 2: Heredity: the transmission of traits from one generation to the next. Genetics: the scientific study of heredity. th  Its roots can be traced back to the 19 century experiments of Gregor Mendel. o Worked on pea plants in his garden and was able to deduce many of the basic principles of inheritance. o He determined that some discrete substances were passed from parent to offspring during reproduction o In all, Mendel deduced the underlying principles of genetics. CHARACTERS AND TRAITS: Character: an inherited feature that varies from one individual to another Traits: characters that come in two or more variations.  Examples a purple flower trait and a white flower trait, eye color, hair color ALLELES: alternate forms of a particular gene. Important Reminder: Plants and animals are diploid meaning that their chromosomes and genes come in matched sets. One from the mother and one from the father.  Heterozygous: two different alleles for a gene  Homozygous: two identical alleles for a gene DOMINATN VS. RECESSIEV ALLELES:  Dominant Allele: allele that determines the organism’s appearance for a character  Recessive Allele: has no noticeable effect, although it can be passed down to offspring GENOTYPE VS. PHENOTYPE:  Phenotype: an organism’s physical traits  Genotype: the underlying genetic makeup  One of the main principles of genetics: in a combination with the environment, genotype causes the phenotype through the action of genes. A PUNNET SQUARE CAN BE USED TO PREDICT THE RESULTS OF A GENETIC CROSS:  Genetic Cross: used to predict what traits will be expressed in offspring  P-generation: in the genetic cross, are the 2 individual parents, which are crossed to produce the…  F1 generation: the first generation offspring  Monohybrid Cross: a genetic cross that follows just one character of the two parentsexample being Labrador coat color  Test Cross: a mating between an individual of the dominant phenotype, but unknown genotype and a homozygous individual. Law of Segregation: when the pair of alleles for any given character separates, one allele goes into half the gametes and the other allele going to the other half of gametes. In other words, occurs when two members of the pair segregate during gamete formation.


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