Bio 106 D, Genes Video Analysis, Week 5
Bio 106 D, Genes Video Analysis, Week 5 BIO*106*D
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lydia Laws on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO*106*D at Elon University taught by Kathleen Gallucci in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Biology: The Science of Life in Biology at Elon University.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
Genes 2 Video Analysis: Traits Mendel Studied in Pea Plants: Began studying seeds that were true, meaning the parents were homozygous or had the identical allele traits he was observing Seed form and seed color are the traits focused on Mendel placed pollen (male gamete) on top of the pistil (female gamete) Planted round seeds with wrinkled seeds He saw that all plants in the first generation had round seeds o Round seeds were considered “hybrids” because they were the offspring of two different varieties Principle of Dominance: the dominant trait is the only one that shows up in the first generation (F1) when true breeding organisms reproduce. o Concluded that if the round seed was only one present in the F1 generation, it must be dominant over the wrinkled seed form The recessive trait (wrinkled seeds) appeared in the second generation (F2) o Meaning the recessive trait is “masked” by the dominant trait Genetics Lingo: Homologous chromosomes have the same version, or allele of each gene when an organism is homozygous for that trait. o If an organism has unlike alleles it is heterozygous for the trait. Mendel’s first laws of Equal Segregation: parents pass only half of their genetic material to their offspring through the gametes o thus the pair of alleles segregate during meiosis and haploid gametes are produced. o In today’s language: alleles of genes separate during meiosis and end up in different gametes. Another Mendel Experiment: plants with smooth yellow seeds were crossed with green wrinkled seeds Two different traits. Seed form and seed color. First generation seeds were all smooth and yellow Mendel’s Second Laws of Independent Assortment: alleles for one gene separate into gametes independently of alleles of other genes LAWS ARE PREDICTIVE THEORIES EXPLAIN WHAT WE OBSERVE IN NATURE Mendel’s particulate theory of inheritance: Unlike alleles cause variation Offspring inherit one copy of a gene from each parent Alleles can be dominant or recessive Copies of each gene (alleles) separate into different gametes. Gametes fuse randomly Capital R stands for dominant allele Chromatids before crossing over will be identical Each chromatid will have and upper case R When meiosis occurs, alleles on homologous chromosomes will end up in different gametes Therefore a gamete has only one of each chromosome making it haploid or n Each parent will give only one R R r RR Rr Rr rr Homozygous dominant RR Heterozygous dominant Rr Homozygous recessive rr A Modern Look at Independent Assortment Video: R for round r for wrinkled Y for yellow y for green Now two homozygous dominant traits Doing Mendelian Gentetics Problems:
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