Lecture 8 - Chapter 4: Gender Development, Gender Roles, and Gender Identity
Lecture 8 - Chapter 4: Gender Development, Gender Roles, and Gender Identity HLWL 1109
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HLWL 1109 at George Washington University taught by Philip W. Lucas in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Human Sexuality in Health and Wellness at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 10/12/16
Leslie Ogu HLWL 1109 09/27/2016 - Chapter 4: Gender Development, Gender Roles, and Gender Identity Class Discussion on Communication and the Presidential Debate ● The idea of women being seen as an object ● Men and women carry themselves differently for different reasons ● Children are already engaging their gender’s behavior at a young age ● Women tend to use tab questions to confirm people are listening, and/or agreement Gender and Sex ● Gender: refers to behavioral, psychological, and social characteristics of men and women ● Sex: refers to the biological aspects of being male or female ● Both nature and nurture are important in forming gender ○ Case Study: Dr. John Money and Brenda / Bruce Watched video about Jazz Jennings (transgender born a boy with the mind of a girl) Prenatal Development: X and Y Make the Difference ● Sex is determined at conception ● “Default setting” is female ● Sexual differentiation in the womb ○ Each parent supplies a gamete, each with half of the genetic information (23 chromosomes), including a sex chromosome ■ Male: sperm (X or Y) ■ Female: egg / ovum (X) Prenatal Development: Sex Chromosomes ● Sex chromosomes control development of: ○ Internal sex organs ○ External sex organs Internal Sex Organs ● 4-6 Weeks ○ Gonads begin to develop and sexual differentiation starts Development of Internal Sex Organs - 7-11 weeks and At Birth (diagram in slides) External Sex Organs ● Homologous organs: developed from the same prenatal tissue ● 8th week: tubercle differentiates ○ Female: Müllerian duct develops ○ Male: Wolffian duct develops Hormonal Development and Influences ● Ovaries produce: ○ Estrogen: female sexual characteristics ○ Progesterone: menstrual cycle and pregnancy ● Testes produce: ○ Androgens: a hormone that promotes the development of male genitals and secondary sex characteristics; produced by the testes Development Disorders of Sexual Development - Chromosomal Conditions ● The three most common syndromes are: ○ Klinefelter’s Syndrome ○ Turner Syndrome ○ XXY and Triple X Syndrome Klinefelter’s Syndrome ● XXY ● 1/700 live male births ● Male genitalia not fully developed ● Tall, feminized body ● Low testosterone levels; low in sexual desires ● Gynecomastia: guys who has additional tissue developed in the chest area ○ Not the same functioning as women’s breasts ● Infertile ● Often undiagnosed Turner Syndrome ● XO ● 1/2500 live female births ● Ovaries not fully developed ● Short stature ● Immature breast development ● Intellectual disability ● Health problems in adulthood XYY Syndrome and Triple X Syndrome ● XYY or XXX ○ May be normal male (XXX) Disorders of Sexual Development - Hormonal Disorders: CAH ● Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) ○ XX girl exposed to excess androgens from adrenal glands prenatally
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