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week 8 notes

by: Brooke Martin

week 8 notes Biol 2108k

Brooke Martin
GPA 3.9

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fungi and nervous system
Principles of Biology II
Class Notes
Biology, GSU
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brooke Martin on Wednesday October 12, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2108k at Georgia State University taught by Brewer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology II in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 10/12/16
Biology 2 MW 12:00 PM Week 8 Notes October 12, 2016 FUNGUS  Yeast o Unicellular o Live in liquids/moist environment o Absorb nutrients directly across cell surface o Divide by budding o importance: baking and brewing o general anatomy  fruiting body – reproductive structure  hyphae – thin filaments  main body – helps communicate  cell wall – has chitin  septum – damage control FUNGAL NUTRITION  absorptive chemoheterotrophs o some saprobes – feed on dead/decaying matter o decomposers of wood (breakdown lignin) o predatory o parasitic  example: Cordycepes  fungus attacks ant brain and erupts from ants head o symbiotic PATHOGENTIC FUNGI  major cause of death of people with compromised immune systems  important pathogens o cause mildew, rust, rots  some produce toxins  aspergillus o aflatoxins  contaminates grain  cases acute liver damage MUTUALISTIC INTERACTIONS  Mycorrhizae o Moralistic of fungi and plant roots o Fungus obtains compounds from plant o Plant given water and nutrients from fungus  Lichens o Fungus + photosynthetic partner  Cyanobacteria, green algae, or both o General characteristics  Nutritional needs from air, rain, and minerals from dust  Persist for long periods of time  Survive harsh environments  Cannot secrete toxins  Fungus farming ants o Ants collect and chew leaves and petals o Put mycelium on leaves o Fungus breaks down and absorbs nutrients from leaves o Ants eat fungus REPRODUCTION  Sexually and asexually  Spores are dispersed o Asexually by mitosis o Sexually by meiosis o Made in multicellular fruiting body  Asexual reproduction o Fission or budding o Breakage of mycelium o Produce haploid spores n sporangia o Favorable location = new mycelium that’s genetically identical to original mycelium  Sexual reproduction o Cytoplasm fuse in plasmogamy o Dikaryon is heterokaryotic  Two nuclei  Fusion of nuclei results in diploid o Spores are dispersed before they go through mitosis to produce mycellum FUNGAL PHYLOGENY  Chytrids o Flagellated spores o Decomposers o Example: Batrachochytrium dendrobatids  Kill amphibians  Zygomycets o Moldy bread  Glomermycetes o Symbiotic with plant roots  From endomycorrhizae o Glucose from plant is primary energy source o No sexual reproduction  Dikarya o Ascomycetes  Multicellular fruiting bodies  Dikaryotic cells form asci (contains spores)  haploid cells form bulk of body o Basidiomycetes  Mushrooms, rust, smuts  Fruiting structures  Dense aggregation of hyphae  Massive underground mycelia  Basidia – club shaped cells that hold 4 sexual spores NERVOUS SYSTEM  Diversity o Animals with no nervous system  Example: sponges o Nerve net meshwork of nerve cells, no central bran  Example: jelly fish and coral o More centralized nervous system, brain, nervous chords  Example: humans  Organization o Central nervous system (CNS)  Brain and spinal chord  Receives and processes information  Initiate actioned response o Peripheral Nervous system (PNS)  Transport information between CNS and body  Sensory neurons  Detect stimuli and transmit to CNS  Motor neurons  Carry signal from CNS to body  Control activity of glands and muscles  Somatic nervous system o Voluntary movement o Activated by skeletal muscle  Autonomic nervous system o Involuntary movement o Influences organs, glands, and smooth muscle o Sympathetic  Prepare body for stress  Fight or flight o Parasympathetic  Maintenance activities  Rest and digest  Cell types o Neurons  Sensory – external and internal environment  Interneurons – processing neurons and information; initiate resonce  Motor – carry out response o Supporting cells  Glia or neuegila  CNS  Astrocytes – support neurons and maintain environment  Oligodendrocyte – myelin sheath  PNS  Schwan cells – myelin sheath  Anatomy o Dendrites – receive information o Body (AKA soma) o Axon hillock – electric signal starting point o Axon – transmit information o Neurotransmitter o Axon terminal – communication with next cell in circuit o Synapse – where cells interact  Electrical: gap junction; presynaptic cell connects to postsynaptic cell  Chemical: space between cells (called synaptic cleft  Neurotransmitter  Voltage across membrane o Measure potential difference or voltage across plasma membrane o Charge different across plasma membrane o Interior more negative o Resting membrane potential  Voltage across plasma when it’s not actively signaling (resting)  Determined by:  Concentration of ions(across membrane) o Ex) Na⁺, K⁺ and all other charged atoms  Selective permeability Ion Name Chemical symbol Intracellular Extracellular concentration concentration *sodium Na⁺ Low High *Potassium K⁺ High Low Chlorine Cl⁻ Low High Inorganic anions A⁻ High Low *=most important Inorganic anions are large negatively charged proteins


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