Week 12 of Behavior Analysis -
Week 12 of Behavior Analysis - PSYC 2500-001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hinds Notetaker on Thursday October 13, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2500-001 at East Tennessee State University taught by Robin Leonard in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Behavior Analysis in Psychology at East Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 10/13/16
Understanding Problem Behaviors through Functional Assessment Chapter 13 Defining Functional Assessment Functional Assessment: o the process of gathering information about the antecedent and consequences that are functionally related to the occurrence of a problem behavior Every behavior in the world, even the bad ones , serves a purpose One must figure out “what is the function of my behavior?” “what do we get out of it?” if we don’t know the answer to this, we cannot get rid of the problem/behavior We must find a functionally equivalent behavior – serves the same function but is better than the previous one o Deep breathing; methods of muscle relaxation (for stress relief) o Gathering all the information around a behavior; before and after onset and consequence; in doing this we can identify the triggers/ antecedents ; can identify reinforcing consequences through F.A. Relationship/ contingency between a child and a parent who only pays attention to them when the fuss at them; acting out brings attention Must find functionally equivalent behavior – reinforce with positive attention rather than negative attention Treatment Process: Decreasing Problem Behaviors Identify and define target behavior(s) o to decrease and increase we must figure out what is being done instead of what needs to be done, and then identify what would be equally as rewarding o from interview and observation Identify exact actions that constitute beh. Initiate data collection o What happens immediately before and after behavior, time of day Complete functional assessment – Identify the function of the behavior o hypotheses about antecedents(trigger) and consequences o patterns will emerge/and you will start to see a trend then you will see the function of the behavior you must pay attention to the environment so well that you can identify what causes it Develop hypothesis and implement treatment o changes in antecedents and consequences Evaluate o effectiveness and implementation fidelity did everyone implement it in the right way? Did it maintain consistency? [Examples] of Functional Assessment: Jacob Antecedent: Other kids play with Jacobs toys o Behavior: He bangs his head, whines and throws toys, Consequence: Kids return toys to him Antecedent: Other kids play with Jacobs toys, o Behavior: Jacob (was trained to) ask for toys back, Consequence: The kids return Jacobs toys to him [Examples] of Functional Assessment: Anna Antecedent: Anna’s mother is not paying attention to her/ the reason is lack of attentiongetting attention becomes motivating variable o Behavior: Anna hits, kicks, and screams Consequence: Anna’s mother pays attention to her Antecedent: Anna’s mother is not paying attention to her o Behavior: Anna asks he mom for attention Consequence: Anna’s mother pays attention to her Functions of Problem Behaviors Social Positive Reinforcement Social Negative Reinforcement Automatic Positive Reinforcement drugs Automatic Negative Reinforcement Where we will start for next class Functional Assessment Methods Indirect Assessment Methods Direct Observation Methods Experimental Methods (Functional Analysis) Indirect Methods Interviews or questionnaires used to gather information about the problem behavior Also known as informant assessment methods Functional Assessment Questions Problem Behaviors Describe all the behaviors involved in the problem. Is there a predictable sequence of behaviors? Antecedents When, where, and with whom does the problem behavior occur? What circumstances, situations, or activities lead to the problem behavior? Are there emotional or behavioral predictors of the problem behavior? Is the problem behavior related to medication, medical condition, pain, discomfort, problems with sleep, other biological factors, or other setting events? Functional Assessment Questions Consequences What happens when the problem behavior occurs? How do people react to the problem behavior? What does the behavior get for the child? What does the child escape from or avoid by engaging in the behavior? Alternative Behaviors What do you want the child to do instead of the problem? Would this desirable behavior displace the problem? Is the child capable of engaging in this behavior? What prevents this behavior from occurring? Direct Observation Methods Observing and recording the antecedents and consequences each time the behavior occurs (Also called ABC observation) Observe in normal situations (when the problem usually occurs) Focus on immediate antecedents and consequences Describe events objectively Avoid inferences or assumptions Record enough episodes to see patterns in the antecedents and consequences Outcome Develop hypotheses about likely controlling variables Conducting ABC Observations Descriptive Method Checklist Method Interval Recording Method Experimental Methods Manipulating antecedent or consequent variables to demonstrate their influence on the problem behavior (Also called Functional Analysis) Manipulate antecedents (possible MOs) and consequences (possible reinforcers) Observe changes in the behavior Replicate Types of Functional Analysis Exploratory: test a range of possible functions or the effects of a variety of antecedents Hypothesis Testing: test hypothesis from descriptive assessment Functional Analysis Research Carr, Newsone, and Binkoff (1980) Carr and Durand (1985) Durand and Carr (1987, 1991, 1992) Iwata and Colleagues (1982) Conducting a Functional Assessment Interview the client or other informants who know the client well and have specific knowledge of the problem behaviors. Conduct direct observations of the ABCs in the natural context. If assessments are consistent, develop and implement treatment that addresses the function of the behavior If no clear relationship is determined using the above methods, conduct a functional analysis.
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